Ch 11 The Second Civil War Flashcards
What was Charles position at end of First English Civil War 1646?
- defeated militarily; but strong position to negotiate for settlement due to being King
- Charles refused to consider Parliament’s settlements seriously; political move to play upon the divisions between English Parliament, Scots & NMA
What did Charles’ stubbornness for post-war settlement encourage within Parliament?
- encouraged divisions between moderates & radicals that had emerged within Parliament over how to fight the Civil War
- by 1646, the 2 parliamentary factions labelled the Political Presbyterians & Political Independents
- indicate a religious division & a political one
Key Info on Political Presbyterians?
- key figures= Holles & Stapleton
- more moderate in nature, called ‘Peace Party’
- generally conservative in social/political matters
- opposed to religious toleration (wanted Presbyterianism)
- favoured a negotiated peace w/ King & willing to accept settlement on minimal terms (including the disbanding of NMA!)
- increasingly disappointed by NMA
- drew closer to Scots
- supported Presbyterian Church to prevent social revolution
Key Info on Political Independents?
- key figures: Oliver Cromwell & Henry Ireton
- more radical in nature, called ‘War Party’
- disliked the authoritarianism of Scottish Presbyterianism as they wanted religious independence
- wanted a considerable measure of religious toleration
- allied w/ NMA (seen as their security against Charles)
- willing to settle w/ King & disband NMA only IF Charles accepted limitations to his power!
What was the complexity of the Parliamentary factions?
- messy division because some religious Presbyterians supported Political Independents
- therefore, the religious views of the factions cannot be absolutely assumed
- summarised by Robert Ashton
In 1646 which Parliamentary faction was the most influential?
- Political Presbyterians; most of the country would have favoured them due to their peace policy
- the country was weary of war & wanted peace
- in 1646, if Charles had accepted the reasonable terms presented to him by the Political Presbyterians, the Political Independents & the NMA would have gone along w/ the agreement & their would have been no second civil war
What were the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?
-Political Presbyterians presented their plan for settlement to Charles July 1646
What were the main features of the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?
- religion: Charles was to accept the establishment of Presbyterianism in England for 3 years
- militia: Parliament was to control the militia (armed forces) for 20 years (regarded as the likely remainder of Charles’ life)
- Parliament: the Triennial Act was to remain, guaranteeing regular parliaments as a limit to monarch’s power
- Royalists: only 58 Royalists were not to be pardoned, thus hopefully encouraging others to accept defeat
What was Charles’ response to the Newcastle Propositions (July 1646)?
- response was to stall; he had no intention of agreeing to them, but did not say this directly in order to allow the divisions between his opponents to develop
- settlement was hampered by Parliament’s political divisions, further deepened by religious differences
How was instability created in the winter of 1646/47?
- instability because Political Presbyterians tried to get Charles to agree to a revised, more lenient version of Newcastle Propositions; also seeking to implement what in effect amounted to counter-revolution:
- demobilising the NMA but keeping a smaller force to got to Ireland to crush the Irish Catholics
- creating an alternative ‘safe’ army based on the London Trained Bands
How did Political Presbyterians’ leader abuse the NMA?
- leader Denzil Holles abused them in the Declaration of Dislike=document stating army petitioners were ‘enemies to the state & disturbers of the public peace’
- the Newcastle Propositions & Declaration of Dislike were offensive to NMA; they (as well as their allies the Political Independents) saw the Political Presbyterians as attempting to raise a rival army from forces remaining regionally in the West & North that were led by sympathetic leaders rather than NMA officers
How did the Political Presbyterians inadvertently create a new radical force in the political settlement?
- their strategy was based on fact that Parliament faced huge financial problem: owing army £3 million
- in attempting to implement their strategy they inadvertently brought the NMA as a new radical force into the political settlement
What incensed the NMA?
- thy were owed £3million in wages; they feared being made to disband before this money was paid
- there was possibility of being charged w/ offensives committed during the war, as Parliament had not passed an indemnity act (would provide soldiers w/ insurance against prosecution for actions taken during the civil war)
How was the New Model Army created?
- by Parliament early 1645
- merged three regional armies, w/ aim of making war effort more effective
- first commanded by Thomas Fairfax, w/ Oliver Cromwell as lieutenant general
What impact did the NMA’s entry into politics have on settlement?
-entry into politics (especially due to financial reasons) had significant impact on settlement; once it became a political force, it became central to all that followed until the restoration of monarchy in 1660
Key Info on Thomas Fairfax (1612-71)?
- was general in Parliament’s Northern Association Army
- 1645 appointed as commander-in-chief of NMA
- excellent general but not great w/ politics
- w/ NMA’s politicisation, he found himself sidelined by his subordinates like Cromwell & Ireton
Key Info on Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658)?
- member of minor gentry
- elected as MP in 1640
- during First Civil War served as lieutenant general of the Eastern Association Army
- second in command of NMA
- naturally politically conservative
- came to believe that God had condemned Charles (after his experience of battle within NMA)
- increasingly took lead in settlement politics
What was NMA’s opposition to Parliament based on (1646-49)?
- wanted their material grievances addressed (wages paid!)
- Parliament (dominated by Political Presbyterians) failed to address NMA’s concerns; thus the army’s statements became increasingly more radical
What did the NMA do March 1647?
- NMA first petitioned Parliament to readdress their grievances
- Parliament condemned this petition