Ch 12-14 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 12-14 Deck (105):
1

mRNA

direct complement kf dna gene used as a message to the celll to make a specific protein

2

set of 3 bases in dna

triplet

3

set of 3 bades in mRNA

codon

4

tRNA

carry amino acid to the mRNA ribosome complex and make sure it is the correct amino acid

5

parts of a tRNA

D loop
Anticodon loop
variable loop
CG loop

6

anticodon

complement to a codon

7

rRNA

bind mRNA
read each codon
signal corresponding tRNA
build polypeptide one amino acid at a time

8

e site

exit
empty tRNA released into cytoplasm

9

p site

peptidyl
dehydration occurs

10

a site

aminoacyl
tRNA checks for correct amino acid

11

central dogma

dna determines everyrhing

12

transcription factors

circulation proteins that bind the promoter region when activated and assist RNa polymerase 3 with positioning

13

mRNA processing

only in eukaryotes

14

5 prime methylguanosine group

added to 5 prime end
flip orientation and slows it down

15

poly A tail

50-250 extra adenines added
slow down degradation

16

introns

noncodong regions

17

exons

coding regions

18

spliceosome

congregation of snRNPs protein

19

snRNP

small nuclear ribonucleo protein

20

translarion

from nucleic acid to amino acid
each codon turned into amino acid

21

3 steps to translation

initiation
elongation
termination

22

initiation

small subunit binds mRNA
start codon is read
correct tRNA is signaled
ribsome moves mRNA to p site to begin elongation

23

elongaion

each codon is read at p site and a amino acid is attached to chain
until a stop codon is read

24

termination

the stop codon is read and the chain releases

25

housekeeping gene

make product thats needed in almost every cell
aquaporin

26

hemoglobin

found in every cell
only turned on in RBCs
carry oxygen in blood cells

27

insulin

pick up sugar in digestive system
only turned on in pancreas cells

28

mysoin

sarcomere muscle contraction
only turned on in muscle cells

29

operon

regulatory gene
turn on/off gene expression

30

inducible operon

normally off
repressor protein is bonded to operator
lac operon

31

lac Z

galectoeidase

32

lac Y

permease

33

lac A

transacetylase

34

lac operon

blocks plymerase from getting to lac Z, Y, A because its bonded to operator

35

lactose

bind to repressor protein, changes shape, and gene expression is turned on

36

repressible operon

normally on
repressor protein not bonded to operator
Arg (aa)

37

6 eukaryotic regulation

chromatin condensation
eukaryotic transcription factors
alternative mRNA splicing
mRNA translation
protein activity
mutations

38

chromatin condensation

silent vs active

39

heterochromatin

off
silent

40

euchromatin

on
active

41

barr body

complete condensation of second X chromosome in female mammals
stays condensed entire life
calico cats

42

eukaryotic transcription factors

activator and TF bend dna
circulating proteins and activator enhancers bind and bend dna for rna polymerase 2

huntingtons disease

43

alternative mRNA splicing

different sequences of exons used you can make different products

44

mRNA translation

conditions must be favorable before translation can begin

temp, ph, molecules present or absent

heme and micro rna

45

heme

physically bonded to oxygen
hemoglobin not translated if not present

46

micro rnas

if absent translation can occur
mRNA complements that bind and prevent translation

47

protein activity

folding and processing must occur before active

48

mutations

permeant change in dna sequence

49

spontaneous mutation

reading error by dna polymerase 3
1 in every billion

50

induced mutation

increase of spontaneous mutations due to outside factors

51

point mutation

add, delete, substitue bases

52

missense

change 1 amino acid

53

nonsense

change resulted in a stop codon

54

silient

change does not change the amino acid

55

frameshift

add or delete bases causes a change in codon reading
polypeptide never released
non functional protein
every aa is changed after

56

nitrous acid

changes adenine to hypoxanthine

57

thymine dimer

uv exposure
thymines break from adenines and bind to each other
frameshift mutation

58

the ames test

test if chemical component ks a mutigen
salmonella

59

salmonella ames test

histidine negative
cant synthesize histidine on its own

control- no histidine, little nutrients, no chemcical, no growth

test- no histidine, contains chemical, growth, little nutrient

60

proto oncogenes

proteins expresses stimulate cell division and inhibit apoptosis
normally off
mutations turn on (mutstion in promoter region)
oncogene

61

oncogenes

RET gene (thyroid cancer)
HPV = cervical caner

62

tumor supressor genes

proteins expressed inhibit cell division and stimulate apoptosis
normally on
mutations turn it off
P53

63

P53

inhibits tumor growth
regulates CDK and cycline
can stop cell cycle
repair dna
stimulate apoptosis

64

senenscence

gradual gravitation towards mortality

65

RB gene

cancer of retina

66

BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene

breast cancer

67

multiple hit cancer

get 2 mutations
1 from mom
1 from dad

68

biotechnology

use of microorganism or their metabolic products to complete processes in manifacturing, industrial, and cultural, biomedical, pharmaseutical fields

69

traditional biotech

use living things and selection of natural features in living rhinngs
beer, wine, paper, clothes

70

innovative biotech

use of genetically engineered microorganisms, plants, animal cells
GMO

71

recombiant dna (rDNA)

dna from 2 sources
same dna replication, transcription, translation
central dogma

72

practical properties of dna

heat to 90-95 C breaks H bonds
cool forms H bonds (50-70C)
form hybrinds to any complement
dna has measurable size based on base paired that can be separated by size
dna has negative charge

73

vectors

self replicating dna segment used to hybridize with new genes and gets inserted into cell

plasmids

74

dna sequencinn

determine specific nucleotide sequence

75

sanger method

dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs)
fluorescently labeled
missig 3 hydroxyl group
elongation stops completely

76

restriction enzymes

endonucleoases
enzymes that search through dna for a specific sequence and cuts phosphodiester bond at every sequence

EcoR1

77

ligase

fill in breaks and creates phosphodiester bonds

78

reverse transcriptase

turn mRNA into cDNA
not the same dna in nucleus and cytoplasm because introns are remvoed

79

short tandem repeats (STR)

short nucleotide sequences that repeat
pattern is unique
csi
paternity

80

polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

stimulate dna replication and amplification

81

pcr cocktail

primer
taq polymerase
nucleotides

82

gel electrophoresis

seperate molecules by size
fingerprint
csi
paternitt
identification

83

dna ladder

mixture of known dna pieces

84

hybridization

ability kf dna to form H bonds with complement base pairs from any source

85

gene probe

single strand dna molcule that is specifically labelled tocreact when it hybridizes

86

RNAi

single double stranf molecule that is complement to specific mRNA and when bound targets mRNA for destruction

87

cDNA libraries

databases lf known mRNA complement genese made using reverse transcriptaset

88

old tech vaccines

method for creating immune response memory by stimulatin an immune response without causeing the infection

89

whole inactivated

dead
chemically destroyed
cannot replicatet

90

live attenuated

chemically altered
couldnt get into cells

91

synthetic peptides

memory

92

recombinat dna

synthensize antigen

93

naked dna

insert directky into cell
or use a vector

94

gmo

any organism containing dna from other species or dna that has been outside regulated

95

selective breeding

look at outside phenotype

96

advance breeding

look at specific dna sequence

97

gm breeding

know sequence and location of cut so it wont affect anyrhing else

98

Bt

bacillus thuringenesis
makes enzyme that ruptures guts of chewing insects

99

gene lharming

use of an organism to make product
produce monoclonal antibodies from b cells

100

trnasformation

process of tsking dna from environment

101

dna inside body/plants

protoplast fusion
microinjection
votex mixing

102

protoplast fusion

pusle cells together

103

microinjection

inject into nucleus

104

vortex mixing

silcon cuts cells for dna insertion

105

test for recombiant microbes

expose to selective medium
cut with no promoter insert gnese
took in plasmid