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Flashcards in Ch 12 Deck (37):
1

An individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

Personality

2

View personality with a focus on the unconscious and the importance of childhood experiences

Psychodynamic theories

3

Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions

Psychoanalysis

4

According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware

Unconscious

5

In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how unimportant or embarrassing

Free association

6

A reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The __ operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification

Id

7

The largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, balances the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ___ operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain

Ego

8

The part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future goals

Superego

9

The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure seeking energies focuses on distinct erogenous zones

Psychosexual stages

10

According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father

Oedipus complex

11

The process by which, according to Fred, children incorporate their parents values into their developing superegos

Identification

12

In personality theory, according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved

Fixation

13

In psychoanalytical theory, the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality

Defense mechanism

14

In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness the thoughts, feelings, and memories that arouse anxiety

Repression

15

Carl Jung's concept of shared, inherited group of memories from our species' history

Collective unconscious

16

Personality test, such as Rorschach, that provides an ambiguous image designed to trigger protection of the test-takers unconscious thoughts or feelings

Projective test

17

Projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stores they make up about ambiguous scenes

Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

18

The most widely used projective test; a set of 10 inkblots, designed by Herman Rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots

Rorschach inkblot test

19

Maslow's pyramid of human needs; at the base are psychological needs. These basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level safety needs, and then psychological needs, become active

Hierarchy of needs

20

According to Maslow, the psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self-esteem is achieved; the motivation to fill our potential

Self-actualization

21

According to Maslow, the striving for identity, meaning, and purpose beyond the self

Self-transcendence

22

A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Rogers believed would help people develop self-awareness and self-acceptance

Unconditional positive regard

23

All our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?"

Self-concept

24

A characteristic pattern of behavior or a tendency to feel and act in a certain way, as assessed by self-report inventories in peer reports

Trait

25

Cluster of behavior tendencies that occur together

Factor

26

The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)

27

A questionnaire on which people respond to items design to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess select a personality traits

Personality inventory

28

The interacting influences our behavior, internal personal factors, and environment

Reciprocal determinism

29

Views behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their thinking) and their social context

Social-cognitive perspective

30

Our sense of competence and effectiveness

Self-efficacy

31

Your image and understanding of who you are; in modern psychology, the idea that this is the center of personality, organizing your thoughts, feelings, and actions

Self

32

Overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us)

Spotlight effect

33

Our feelings of high or low self-worth

Self-esteem

34

Excessive self-love and self-absorption

Narcissism

35

Our readiness to perceive ourselves favorably

Self-serving bias

36

Giving priority to our own goals over group goals and defining our identity in terms of personal traits rather than group membership

Individualism

37

Giving priority to the goals of our group (often our extended family or work group) and defining our identity accordingly

Collectivism