Ch. 12 Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 12 Diagnostic Terms Deck (49):
1

ankyloglossia

tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum (ankyl/o = crooked or stiff)

2

cheilitis

inflammation of the lip

3

esophageal varices

swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage

4

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

5

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

6

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

back flow of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus

7

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

8

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

9

parotiditis, parotitis

inflammation of the parotid gland; mumps

10

peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Heliobacter pylori bacteria (pelt/o = to digest)

11

gastric ulcer

stomach ulcer

12

duodenal ulcer

ulcer located in the duodenum

13

pyloric stenosis

narrowed condition of the pylorus

14

sialoadenitis

inflammation of the salivary gland

15

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

16

anal fistula

an abnormal, tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)

17

appendicitis

inflammation of the appendix

18

colitis

inflammation of the colon (large intestine)

19

ulcerative colitis

chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations

20

colorectal polyps

benign tissue growths on the mucous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous

21

pediculated polyp

projected on a stalk (per/o = foot)

22

sessile polyp

lying flat on the surface (sessilis = low growing)

23

diverticulum

an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract; usually related to a lack of dietary fiber

24

diverticulosis

presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon

25

diverticulitis

inflammation of diverticula

26

dysentery

inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools; most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (e.g., amebic dysentery)

27

enteritis

inflammation of the small intestine

28

hemorrhoid

swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)

29

hernia

protrusion of a part from its normal location

30

hiatal hernia

protrusion of a part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm

31

inguinal hernia

protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region

32

incarcerated hernia

hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction

33

strangulated hernia

hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous

34

umbilical hernia

protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus

35

ileitis

inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine

36

intussusception

prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus = within; suscipiens = to take up)

37

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

38

procititis

inflammation of the rectum and anus

39

volvulus

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction (volvo = to roll)

40

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

41

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

42

choledocholithiasis

presence of stones in the common bile duct

43

cholelithiasis

presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts

44

cirrhosis

chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue; most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)

45

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

46

hepatitis A

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food and water

47

hepatitis B

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

48

hepatitis C

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted by exposure to infected blood; this strain is rarely contracted sexually

49

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

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