CH # 12: Urology & Nephrology Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > CH # 12: Urology & Nephrology > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH # 12: Urology & Nephrology Deck (102):
1

Is responsible 4: removing waste products
adjusting water and electrolytes levels in
the body
Maintaining normal pH

This process involves the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder and the urethra

Urinary system

2

Term used 2 refer 2 both urinary and male reproductive systems

Genitourinary system

3

Includes: testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vessels, prostate gland, bulbourethral gland, urethra and penis

Male reproductive system

4

6 Suffixes meaning pertaining 2

-al -eal
-ar -ic
-ary -ous

5

Suffix meaning pain

-algia

6

Suffix meaning hernia or protrusion

-cele

7

Suffix meaning cell

-cyte

8

Suffix meaning surgical removal

-ectomy

9

Suffix meaning blood condition

-emia

10

Suffix meaning produces or generates

-genesis

11

Suffix meaning record or picture

-gram

12

Suffix meaning process of recording

-graphy

13

Suffix meaning state

-ia

14

2 Suffixes meaning abnormal condition

-iasis

-osis

15

Suffix meaning state of or condition

-ism

16

Suffix meaning inflammation

-itis

17

Suffix meaning stone

-lith

18

Suffix meaning 1 who studies

-logist

19

Suffix meaning study of

-logy

20

Suffix meaning destruction

-lysis

21

Suffix meaning enlargement or large

-megaly

22

Suffix meaning instrument 4 measuring

-meter

23

Suffix meaning tumor or mass

-oma

24

Suffix meaning 2 surgically create an opening

-ostomy

25

Suffix meaning cutting in2

-otomy

26

Suffix meaning disease

-pathy

27

Suffix meaning surgical fixation

-pexy

28

Suffix meaning surgical repair

-plasty

29

Suffix meaning drooping

-ptosis

30

Suffix meaning suture

-rrhaphy

31

Suffix meaning discharge or flow

-rrhea

32

Suffix meaning a hardened condition

-sclerosis

33

Suffix meaning an instrument 4 viewing

-scope

34

Suffix meaning the process of visually examining

-scopy

35

Suffix meaning narrowing

-stenosis

36

Suffix meaning crushing

-tripsy

37

Suffix meaning development

-trophy

38

Suffix meaning urine condition

-uria

39

2 Prefixes meaning w/out

A-

An-

40

Prefix meaning abnormal

Dys-

41

Prefix meaning outside of

Extra-

42

Prefix meaning excessive

Hyper-

43

Prefix meaning w/in

Intra-

44

Prefix meaning many

Poly-

45

Prefix meaning across

Trans-

46

Combining form meaning glans penis

The enlarged tip of the penis

Is covered by the prepuce or foreskin (at birth at least)

Balan/o

47

Combining form meaning urinary bladder

A muscle arrogance that stores the urine produced by the kidneys

Urine drains from the bladder from the ureters and exits bladder through the urethra

Cyst/o

48

Combining form meaning epididymis

Sits on the surface of both testis

Stores sperm as they r made by the testes

Epididym/o

49

Combining form meaning stone

Can form in many parts of the body

Usually formed from organic or inorganic salts

Lith/o

50

2 Combining forms meaning kidney

Located at either side of the spine at the level of the lower ribs

Each consists of thousands of nephrons

Nephr/o

Ren/o

51

A portion of the nephrons w/in the kidney that filters waste products and electrolytes out of the blood 2 produce urine

Urine drains out of the kidney and in2 the ureter and on 2 the urinary bladder 4 storage

Glomerulus

52

3 Combining forms meaning testes

The male reproductive organs that produce sperm and testerone

The 2 testes r suspended outside of the body in the scrotum

As sperm r produced, they travel 2 the epididymis 4 storage

Orchid/o

Orchi/o

Orch/o

53

Combining form meaning prostate gland

1 of the male reproductive glands found surrounding the urethra at the base of the bladder

Secretes milky fluid that makes up most of the liquid of the semen and nourishes them

Prostat/o

54

Combining form meaning renal pelvis

An area inside of each kidney where the urine collects as it is being made

Each renal pelvis drains in2 1 of the ureters

Pyel/o

55

Combining form meaning semen

The fluid ejaculated from the penis during intercourse

Contains sperm and fluids secreted by the reproductive glands

Fluid is made from secretions from the prostate gland, seminal vessels and the bulbourethreal gland

Semin/o

56

2 Combining forms meaning sperm

The male reproductive cells

Produced in the testes and r ejaculated from the body in semen

Contains 1/2 of the chromosomes need 4 reproduction

Combines w/ova's 1/2 of the chromosomes 2 create a fetus

Spermat/o

Sperm/o

57

Combining form meaning testicle

Testicul/o

58

Combining form meaning ureter

A tube leading away from the renal pelvis of each kidney

Carries urine from the kidneys 2 the urinary bladder

Ureter/o

59

Combining form meaning urethra

Leads out of the bladder and carries the urine 2 outside of the body

External opening is called the meatus

Urethr/o

60

2 Combining forms meaning urine

The fluid produced by the nephrons of each kidney as they filtered wastes, water and dissolved substances from blood

Urin/o

Ur/o

61

Combining form meaning vas deferens

A long tube that carries sperm from epididymis 2 the urethra

Reproductive glands r connected 2 the vas deferens and adds fluid 2 sperm as they pass by, making semen

Vas/o

62

Combining form meaning seminal vesicles

The male reproductive glands found behind the bladder

It adds fluid 2 sperm as the pass in vas deferens

Vesicul/o

63

The noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland

The condition places pressure on the urethra and narrows it resulting in frequency, urgency, nocturia

Common for males who r 50+ years old

Benign prostatic hypertrophy

(BPH)

64

Blood test 2 determine kidney function by measuring level of nitrogenous waste, urea, in blood

Blood urea nitrogen

(BUN)

65

Term 4 the "stone formed w/in the organ"

Most r formed from mineral salts

Commonly found in kidneys, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder or urethra

Calculus

(Pleural is calculi)

66

Bacterial sexually transmitted disease

Causes the inflammation of the urethra of males and the cervix of females w/purulent discharge

Chlamydia

67

The surgical removal of the prepuce/foreskin from the glans penis

Commonly preformed on males at birth by request of the parents

Primary reason is 4 ease of hygiene and is also a practice done in some religions

Circumcision

68

A procedure for obtaining a urine sample after cleaning off the urethral meatus and catching urine in midstream in order 2 minimize contamination from skin

Clean catch specimen

(CCS)

69

The direct examination 4 the presence of an enlarged prostate gland by palpating the prostate gland w/fingers through the wall of the rectum

Digital rectal exam

(DRE)

70

2 names 4 the inability 2 achieve an erection of penis 4 coitus

Erectile dysfunction
(ED)

Impotence

71

Treatment procedure for urinary system stones

Utilizes ultrasound waves 2 break up stones

Process is noninvasive so it does not require surgery

Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy

(ESWL)

72

A condition of feeling the urge 2 urinate more than normal but w/out in increase in daily total volume of urine

Can indicate inflammation of the bladder, urethra or a benign prostatic hypertrophy

Frequency

73

Highly infectious viral sexually transmitted disease

Causes blister like lesions on the penis of males or the vagina or cervix of females

Genital herpes

74

Bacterial sexually transmitted disease

Infects the mucus membranes and can spread through the genitourinary system

Often does not cause many symptoms until its widespread

Gonorrhea

75

Treatment 4 renal failure using an artificial kidney machine 2 filter the waste from blood

Hemodialysis

(HD)

76

The state of having difficultly initiating the flow of urine

Caused by a blockage in the urethra

Hesitancy

77

The accumulation of fluid w/in the scrotum

Hydrocele

78

An x-ray of the kidney following an injection of dye in2 the vein 2 visualize the renal pelvis as the kidneys filter dye out of the blood stream and put it in2 urine

Intravenous pyelogram

(IVP)

79

An artificial means 2 remove wastes substances from the body by placing warm, chemically balanced solutions in2 the peritoneal cavity

Treatment 4 renal failure

Peritoneal dialysis

80

The narrowing of the prepuce/foreskin over the glans penis

It can cause difficulty w/urination and infection

Treatment is circumsion

Phimosis

81

An inherited kidney disease characterized by presence of multiple cysts throughout the kidney tissues

Eventually destroys kidneys and results in kidney failure

Polycystic kidney disease

(PKD)

82

A blood test 2 screen 4 prostate cancer

Prostate-specific antigen

(PSA)

83

A common and slow growing cancer of the prostate gland occurring in males 50+ years

Is a test used 2 assist in easily detection of this disease

Prostate cancer

84

The inability of the kidneys 2 filter wastes from the blood and/or produce urine

Treatment is dialysis or organ transplant

Renal failure

85

The replacement of a diseased kidney by a donor kidney

Renal transplant

86

An x-ray of the, urinary bladder, urethers and renal pelvis following the insertion of dye through the urethra

Retrograde pyelogram

(RP)

87

Evaluation of sperm for fertility

The sperm in the sample r analyzed number, swimming strength and shape

This procedure would be used 2 determine if a vasectomy was successful

Semen analysis

88

2 names 4 a contagious disease acquired through sexual contact

Sexually transmitted disease
(STD)

Venereal disease
(VD)

89

2 names 4 the inability 2 produce children

In males, problem is usually w/sperm production

Sterility

Infertility

90

A bacterial sexually transmitted disease

It begins at a localized ulcer at the point of infection

A chronic disease that spreads all through lymph nodes in2 the nervous system after years then causing death

Syphilis

91

Cancer of 1 or both testicles

Commonly seen in young men or boys

Testicular cancer

92

Surgical removal of the prostate gland tissue by inserting a device called resectoscope through the urethra and removing prostate tissue

Transurethral resection

(TUR)

93

Protozoan sexually transmitted disease

Causes inflammation of the genitourinary system system in both men and women

Trichomoniasis

94

2 names 4 a congenial anomaly involving failure of 1 or both testes 2 descend in2 the scrotal sac b4 birth

A surgical procedure called orchiopexy can be required 2 bring testes down in2 the scrotum permentaly

Undescended testicle

Cryptochism

95

The force or impulse of needing 2 urinate immediately

Urgency

96

A laboratory test that consists of physical, chemical and microscopic examination of urine

Urinalysis

(U/A, UA)

97

Insertion of a flexible tube in2 the urinary bladder through the urethra

Used 2 w/draw urine or insert dye

Urinary catheraterization

(Cath)

98

2 names 4 involuntary urination

Urinary incontinence

Enuresis

99

Infection of the urethra and/or the urinary bladder

Urinary tract infection

100

A diagnostic lab procedure that identifies the bacterial infection of the urinary system and determines the best antibiotic 2 treat it

It involves growing bacteria in a culture medium and testing different antibiotics on it

Urine culture and sensitivity

(C and S)

101

The development of varicose veins leading 2 the testes in the scrotum

Varicocele

102

An x-ray made while the patient voids dye that has been placed in the urinary bladder through the urethra

Voiding cystourethrography

(VCUG)