Flashcards in Ch 13-15 Deck (86)
The Twelve Articles
A list of peasants grievances that was sent to Luther. He wrote both nobles and peasants to try to maintain peace
In 1524 to 1525 peasants revolted in Germany against feudalism. Arson violence and robbery were very common. This made lords more tyrannical and feudalism continued
All inhabitants of a particular territory should be required by law to become members of a certain kind of church at birth
State or established churches
Official government churches to which everyone had to belong. The standard way of life in Germany. If you disagreed you had to move to a territory where the church leaders agreed with you
Peace of Ausburg
In 1555 it gave official approval to the territorial, state and Stabley S-t church concept in Germany. Princes would decide which church could be in their territory – Roman Catholic or Protestant. Other denominations were not allowed. Church memberships were by birth not choice the protestant reformation began to fade in Germany.
The counter Reformation
this attempted to produce certain Limited changes within the Roman church to prevent any more Catholics from becoming protestants and to force protestants back into the Roman fold
In 1521 a Spanish soldier who repented for three days and felt uncomfortable. He decided to try to earn salvation by service to the Roman church and the pope.
Society of Jesus
Jesuits of 1540. The pope gave Loyola permission to start this religious organization. They grew from 10 members to 1500 members in five years. Their goal was to get protestants back into the Roman church. They used schools and education to do this.
Fueled by the counter Reformation this movement used torture and terror to get protestants to confess. This virtually stopped the Protestantism in Spain. The Roman church still thought it was the kingdom of God on earth. Protestants restaurant to the kingdom.
Peace of Ausburg
1555 it sought to stabilize politics and religion in Germany by combining the two. It was a temporary truce. Changes in politics and religion affected each other. By 1600, about 9/10 of the Holy Roman Empire were Protestant.
Excluded by Peace of Ausburg and spread to Germany. Calvinist priest led people and find a league in 1608 that we're prepared to fight. Catholic states responded to the league of their own and 1609.
The 30 years war
1618 to 1648 – one of the most confusing and disastrous words in European history. Mainly a Civil War in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over religious and political issues. Spain France Denmark and Sweden also became involved.
Bohemia 1618 to 1621
This is where the 30 years war began 101 years after the start of the Protestant Reformation. Throughout the 1500s bohemian Hussites defend themselves from popes, emperors, etc.
1619 from the Habsburg family. Became Holy Roman Empire determined to return bohemia to Romanism by force. He wiped out political and religious liberty and by 1621 political and religious frustrations destroyed Bohemia.
Lands along the Rhine 1621 to 1625
By 1625 in Spanish troops had conquered this region as well
The danish struggle 1625 to 1629 -Christian IV
Christian IV, king of Denmark, supported by England and Holland became the champion of Lutheran Protestantism. Denmark finally was defeated in 1629
The Swedish struggle 1630 to 1632
It looked like Romanism was going to stamp out Protestantism for good but Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, great Lutheran warrior king, landed in Germany with a well-trained army he turned the tide of war. In 1632 Adolphus was killed and the Swedish army was destroyed in 1634.
The Peace of Westphalia
France allied with Swedish German and Dutch protestants and one victories over Austrian in Spanish Habsburg forces. The conference convened in Westphalia to end the conflict and the document was signed in 1648.
Emperor lost territory
In the north to Sweden and in the south to France. Holland in Switzerland became independent countries. The emperor last power in Germany altogether and protestant princes in Germany regained power. Calvinism added with Lutheranism and Roman is him as a church to choose from so Europe became a diverse place.
And oasis of peace known for neutrality in war and political freedom
Name given to Switzerland under the Roman empire. German tribes had settled here but we're driven out by the Franks. How about a cup became part of the Roman empire when it began in 962.
War with the Habsburgs
Swiss cantons Schwyz and Uri didn't want Austrian power to become too great but Habsburgs already controlled much of how Helvetia. In 1273, Rudolph I ruled over Schwyz and Uri. In 1291 the two cantons fought for freedom with Unterwalden.
Defense charter in which Schwyz and Uri agreed to defend each other against foreign imposed rule
The first name of Switzerland, Combining whites and Yuri and untraveled the cantons. Named after Sweitz. Defeated many Australian assaults and 1315 battle of more garden 1600 switch defeated and 20,000 Australians; 1353 5 more Cantons joined Switzerland and kept Austria at bay. During 1400s, Switzerland was powerful, entered Wars to gain territory
Switzerland one it's complete independence from the holy Roman empire
Swista feared French in Italy;/13 cantons in Swiss Confederation
Swiss lost to French
Swiss decided to stay out of wars
Protestant Reformation split Switzerland into two religious camps; 4 civil wars happened