ch 13 & 14 vocab Flashcards Preview

Immunology > ch 13 & 14 vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in ch 13 & 14 vocab Deck (97):
1

leukocytes migrate out of blood vessels to underlying sites of inflammation using a four step process known as

extravasation

2

movement of the fluids and/or cells from the blood vessels into the surrounding tissue

extravasation

3

the outward passage of cells through the intact vessel walls

diapedesis

4

the leukocyte crosses through the wall of the blood vessel a process known as

diapedesis

5

can be either intracellular or extracellular within the host

protozoa

6

tapeworms and flukes

flatworms

7

hookworms and nematodes

roundworms

8

accounts for the frequent changes that occur in the influenza virus from one flu season to the next and for the high antigenic diversity that is found among HIV isolates within a single infected individual

genetic drift

9

seen in the influenza virus from different species infect the same cell

genetic shift

10

genetic exchange between the two types of viruses can generate new hybrid viruses with characteristics that are considerably different from those of either of the two original types

genetic shift

11

vaccination can provide excellent protection to a population, even if not every individual in a population is vaccinated

herd immunity

12

are based on living organisms capable of normal infection and replication

live vaccines

13

are based on organisms that are living but have had their virulence and ability to replicate reduced by treatment with heat, chemicals, or other techniques

attenuated vaccines

14

include organisms that are dead because of treatment with physical or chemical agents

killed vaccines

15

do not contain whole organisms but are composed of materials isolated from disrupted and lysed organisms but not whole organisms

extract vaccines

16

have been made possible by molecular biology techniques that allow creation of organisms from which the removal of certain gene impairs their virulence and/or production

recombinant vaccines

17

are those in which the host is injected with naked DNA extracted from a pathogen

DNA vaccines

18

includes material derived from Mycobacterium and is in wide use around the world as a vaccine against tuberculosis, particularly in areas of high incidence

BCG

19

can trigger various immune responses, including the production of high levels of specific antifungal antibodies

fungi

20

occurs when random mutations of genes encoding microbial antigens create new minor variants that are sufficiently different to escape previously generated immune responses

genetic drift

21

occurs when microbes from different species infect the same cell, recombine, and produce large changes in antigenic molecules

genetic shift

22

vaccination can provide excellent protection to a population, even if not every individual in a population is vaccinated

herd immunity

23

are based on living organisms capable of normal infection and replication

live vaccines

24

are based on organisms that are living but have had their virulence and ability to replicate reduced by treatment with heat, chemicals, or other techniques

attenuated vaccines

25

include organisms that are dead because of treatment with physical or chemical agents

killed vaccines

26

hypersensitivity reactions are rapid, occurring within minutes of exposure to an antigen, and always involve IgE-mediated degranulation of basophils or mast cells

Type I or immediate hypersensitivity or allergic

27

have been made possible by molecular biology techniques that allow creation of organisms from which the removal of certain gene impairs their virulence and/or production

recombinant vaccines

28

hypersensitivity reactions involve the interaction of antibodies with soluble molecules to make soluble antigen-antibody complexes that become deposited in tissues

type III or Arthus reactions

29

includes material derived from Mycobacterium and is in wide use around the world as a vaccine against tuberculosis, particularly in areas of high incidence

BCG

30

can trigger various immune responses, including the production of high levels of specific antifungal antibodies

fungi

31

occurs when random mutations of genes encoding microbial antigens create new minor variants that are sufficiently different to escape previously generated immune responses

genetic drift

32

occurs when microbes from different species infect the same cell, recombine, and produce large changes in antigenic molecules

genetic shift

33

which is part of the immune system associated with the mucosal surfaces, is often thought of as partly separate and independent from the remainder of the immune system

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

34

are bacterial components or other substances, typically suspended in a medium such as oil that prolongs their dispersal into the tissues, administered together with vaccines to heighten the effectiveness of the vaccination

adjuvants

35

fluid accumulation in the tissues

edema

36

vaccination can provide excellent protection to a population, even if not every individual in a population is vaccinated

herd immunity

37

are based on living organisms capable of normal infection and replication

live vaccines

38

are based on organisms that are living but have had their virulence and ability to replicate reduced by treatment with heat, chemicals, or other techniques

attenuated vaccines

39

include organisms that are dead because of treatment with physical or chemical agents

killed vaccines

40

do not contain whole organisms but are composed of materials isolated from disrupted and lysed organisms but not whole organisms

extract vaccines

41

have been made possible by molecular biology techniques that allow creation of organisms from which the removal of certain gene impairs their virulence and/or production

recombinant vaccines

42

are those in which the host is injected with naked DNA extracted from a pathogen

DNA vaccines

43

includes material derived from Mycobacterium and is in wide use around the world as a vaccine against tuberculosis, particularly in areas of high incidence

BCG

44

can trigger various immune responses, including the production of high levels of specific antifungal antibodies

fungi

45

occurs when random mutations of genes encoding microbial antigens create new minor variants that are sufficiently different to escape previously generated immune responses

genetic drift

46

occurs when microbes from different species infect the same cell, recombine, and produce large changes in antigenic molecules

genetic shift

47

which is part of the immune system associated with the mucosal surfaces, is often thought of as partly separate and independent from the remainder of the immune system

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

48

are bacterial components or other substances, typically suspended in a medium such as oil that prolongs their dispersal into the tissues, administered together with vaccines to heighten the effectiveness of the vaccination

adjuvants

49

fluid accumulation in the tissues

edema

50

vaccination can provide excellent protection to a population, even if not every individual in a population is vaccinated

herd immunity

51

are based on living organisms capable of normal infection and replication

live vaccines

52

are based on organisms that are living but have had their virulence and ability to replicate reduced by treatment with heat, chemicals, or other techniques

attenuated vaccines

53

include organisms that are dead because of treatment with physical or chemical agents

killed vaccines

54

do not contain whole organisms but are composed of materials isolated from disrupted and lysed organisms but not whole organisms

extract vaccines

55

have been made possible by molecular biology techniques that allow creation of organisms from which the removal of certain gene impairs their virulence and/or production

recombinant vaccines

56

are those in which the host is injected with naked DNA extracted from a pathogen

DNA vaccines

57

includes material derived from Mycobacterium and is in wide use around the world as a vaccine against tuberculosis, particularly in areas of high incidence

BCG

58

can trigger various immune responses, including the production of high levels of specific antifungal antibodies

fungi

59

occurs when random mutations of genes encoding microbial antigens create new minor variants that are sufficiently different to escape previously generated immune responses

genetic drift

60

occurs when microbes from different species infect the same cell, recombine, and produce large changes in antigenic molecules

genetic shift

61

which is part of the immune system associated with the mucosal surfaces, is often thought of as partly separate and independent from the remainder of the immune system

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

62

are bacterial components or other substances, typically suspended in a medium such as oil that prolongs their dispersal into the tissues, administered together with vaccines to heighten the effectiveness of the vaccination

adjuvants

63

fluid accumulation in the tissues

edema

64

cause tissue injury by the release of chemical substances that attract and activate cells and molecules resulting in inflammation

hypersensitivity reactions

65

hypersensitivity reactions are rapid, occurring within minutes of exposure to an antigen, and always involve IgE-mediated degranulation of basophils or mast cells

Type I or immediate hypersensitivity

66

hypersensitivity reactions are initiated by the binding of antibody to a cell membrane or to the extracellular matrix

type II

67

hypersensitivity reactions involve the interaction of antibodies with soluble molecules to make soluble antigen-antibody complexes that become deposited in tissues

type III

68

hypersensitivity reactions are those in which cells of the immune system directly attack host cells in absence of antibody

type IV

69

an amine found in all plant and animal tissues, it causes vasodilation and hence lowers blood pressure

histamine

70

temporary enlargement of the lumen of a blood vessel

vasodilation

71

narrowing of the blood vessels, often because of the contraction of smooth muscle fibers

vasoconstriction

72

complement independent but requires the cooperation of leukocytes

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

73

activated by IgM and IgG antibodies generates active components of the classical pathway, namely, C3b and C4b

complement

74

systemic syndrome resulting from the deposition of circulating immune complexes, leading to complement-mediated inflammation in blood vessels and glomeruli of the kidney

serum sickness

75

systemic immune complex disease occurs with wide dissemination of antigen-antibody complexes throughout the body

serum sickness

76

delayed or cell mediated hypersensitivity response to cutaneously applied immunogens

contact dermitis

77

form of delayed hypersensitivity in which sensitivity to topically applied simple chemical compounds is manifested by a skin reaction

contact sensitivity

78

spontaneously arising nonself antigens found on cell membranes, usually associated with neoplasia

neoantigens or neoepitopes

79

specific inflammatory immune reactions elicited by antigen in the skin of immune individuals. Takes 24 to 48 hours to develop and is mediated by T cells and macrophages, but not by antibodies

delayed type hypersensitivity

80

penetrate the epidermis and readily bind to body proteins, where they may induce a specific type immune response

haptens

81

the glue that binds
cell surface expression up or down regulated based on stimulatory signal
stabilize weak interaction of pMHC with TCRs
determine WBC migration

adhesion molecules

82

leukocyte migration to inflammation

extravasation

83

secretion of agents that interfere with immune response

disruption

84

death of host immune cells

destruction

85

creation of organisms to remove genes to impair virulence and/or reproduction
can infect host cells, may proliferate, but cannot induce disease

recombinant vaccines

86

substances that heighten immune response
provokes inflammation that attracts phagocytes and accelerates activation and antigen presentation to T cells

adjuvants

87

can be transferred between individuals; quick, short-lived, limited; individual receiving antibody did not make own immune response to pathogen

passive immunity

88

natural infection; production of one's own immunity; slower, long-lived, renewable

active immunity

89

the ability of nonsensitized cells to lyse other cells that have been coated by specific antibody

antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

90

activated by IgM and IgG generates C3b and C4b

complement

91

subsides when immunogen removed

exogenous antigens

92

continuously produced chronic

endogenous antigens

93

chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of joints seen commonly in young women

rheumatoid arthritis

94

follows group A beta hemolytic strep infection, particularly of skin, endocarditis, serum sickness, some viral infections, IgA nephropathy

glomerulonephritis

95

chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects several organs, especially the skin of the face, the joints, and the kidneys

systemic lupus erythematosus

96

CD4+ T cells sensitized topically and respond to applied antigen

contact dermitis

97

occur in sensitized individuals upon non-topical re-encounter with antigen

delayed type hypersensitivity