Ch. 13 Animal Physiology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 13 Animal Physiology Deck (37):
1

Hydra - Digestion

Gastrovascular cavity, has only one opening.

2

Cells of the gastrodermis (lining of the gastrovascular cavity) secrete digestive enzymes into the cavity for

extracellular digestion

3

Earthworm - Digestion

From the mouth, food moves to the esophagus and then to the crop where it is stored. Posterior to the crop, the gizzard, which consists of thick, muscular walls, grinds up the food.

4

Earthworm - absorption

Is enhanced by the presence of a large fold in the upper surface of the intestine -> typhlosole. which greatly increases the surface area.

5

Grasshopper - Disgestion

a digestive tract consists of a long tube consisting of a crop and gizzard.

6

Humans - Digestion

Digestion - breaking down large food molecules into smaller usable molecules.
Absorption - the diffusion of these smaller molecules in the body's cells.

7

Fats

Get broken down into glycerol and fatty acids.

8

Starch

into monosaccharides

9

Nucleic acids

into nucleotides

10

Proteins

into amino acids

11

Vitamins and minerals

They are small enough to be absorbed without being digested.

12

Digestive tract

made of smooth (involuntary) muscle.

13

Smooth (involuntary) muscle that pushes the food along the digestive tract by a process

Peristalsis

14

Mouth

Tongue and teeth break down food mechanically.

15

Salivary amylase

released by salivary glands begins the chemical breakdown of starch.

16

Esophagus

After swallowing. food is directed into the esophagus, by the epiglottis, a flap of cartilage in the back of the pharynx (throat). No digestion occurs in the esophagus.

17

Stomach

Churns food mechanically and secretes gastic juice.

18

Gastric juice

A mixture of the enzyme pepsinogen and hydrochloric acid that begins the digestion of proteins.

19

The acid environment (pH 2-3) activates ________ to become the active enzyme ______ and also kills germs.

Pepsinogen ... pepsin

20

The stomach of all mammals contains _______ to aid in the digestion of the protein in milk.

Rennin

21

__________ at the top of the stomach keeps food in the stomach from backing up into the esophagus and burning it.

Cardiac sphincter

22

__________ at the bottom of the stomach keeps the food in the stomach long enough to be digested.

Pyloric sphincter

23

Digestion is completed in the _________

Duodenum

24

Intestinal enzymes and pancreatic amylases hydrolyze starch and glycogen into _______.

Maltose

25

_______ is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder

Bile

26

Bile is released into the ______ as needed and acts as an _______ to break down fats, creating greater surface area for digestive enzymes.

Small intestine....... emulsifier

27

________ such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, continue to break down proteins.

Peptidases

28

Nucleic acids are hydrolyzed by ________

nucleases

29

_______ break down fats

lipases

30

The lower part of the small intestine is the site of _______.

Absorption

31

Millions of fingerlike projections called _____ absorb all the nutrients that were previously released from digested food.

Villi

32

Each villus contains _______, which absorb amino acids, vitamins and monosaccharides.

capillaries

33

_______, a small vessel of the lymphatic system, which absorbs fatty acids and glycerol.

Lacteal

34

Each epithelial cell of the villus has many microscopic cytoplasmic appendages called ________

Microvilli that greatly increase the rate of nutrient absorption by the villi.

35

Gastrin - site of production and Effect

Stomach wall.... Stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice.

36

Secretin- site of production and Effect

Duodenum wall ..... Stimulates pancreas to release bicarbonate to neutralize acid in duodenum.

37

Cholecystokinin (CCK)

Duodenum wall ..... Stimulates pancreas to release pancreatic enzymes and gall bladder to release bile into small intestine.