Ch 14-15 Flashcards Preview

Chemistry (Gen II) > Ch 14-15 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 14-15 Deck (17):
1

chemical equilibria

dynamic process in which concentrations of reactants and products remain constant over time
-rate of reaction in forward direction matches the rate in the reverse direction
*forward= reverse rate

2

equilibrium constant (k)

unites value of the ratio of concentration terms in the equilibrium constant expression at a specific temperature

3

equilibrium constant expression

ratio of equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of products to reactants, each term raised to a power equal to the coefficient of that substance in the balanced equation

4

law of mass action

ratio of concentrations/ partial pressures of products to reactants at equilibrium has a characteristic value at a given temp

5

mass action expression

equivalent to equilibrium constant expression, but applied to reaction mixtures that may or may not be at equilibrium

6

value of k

indicates EXTENT of reaction
-large k= favors formation of products
-small k= favors formation of reactants
k in forward= 1/(k in reverse)

7

quotient of reaction

number value of the mass action expression for any values of concentrations or partial pressures of the reactants and products
[product]/[reactant]
Q>k = towards reactants
Q

8

homogenous equilibria

involve reactants and products in the same phase (hetero = different phases)

9

le chateliers principle

"a system at equilibrium responds to stress (change in conc, pressure/volume, or temp) in such a way that it relieves that stress"

10

strong acid

completely ionized in water
Ka>>1
HCl, HI, HBr, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4, HSO4-

11

weak acid

partially ionized
Ka>1
CH3COOH...HF, HClO, HNO2

12

bronsted lowry acid

H+ ion donor

13

bronsted lowry base

H+ ion acceptor

14

conjugate acid base pair

differ from each other only by the presence or absence of a proton (H+)
-conjugate pairs: HA/A- = strong acid/ weak base and vice versa (strong base/ weak acid)

15

amphoteric

water can be an acid or base--- ALWAYS weak (weak acid or weak base)

16

strong base

completely dissociates in solution (oxides/ hydroxides, G1 and G2)

17

weak base

does not completely dissociate in solution (nitrogen containing compound )