Ch 14- Blood Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 14- Blood Deck (99):
1

Blood is what kind of tissue?

connective

2

What are 3 main functions of blood?

-transports vital substances
-distributes heat
-maintains stability of interstitial fluid

3

Where do blood cells form?

red bone marrow

4

Blood is mostly made up of:

plasma

5

45% of blood is what?

red blood cells

6

These things make up a lower percent of what blood is made of:

white blood cells and platelets

7

Plasma is mainly made up of:

water

8

Formation of blood cells:

hematopoiesis

9

Where do blood cells originate in and from?

red marrow, hemocytoblasts

10

Stem cells give rise to what kind of cells?

specialized

11

Lymphoid stem cells give rise to:

lymphocytes

12

Myeloid stem cells give rise to:

all other types of formed elements

13

Oxyhemoglobin with O2 is what color?

bright red

14

Deoxyhemoglobin without O2 is what color?

dark red

15

Red blood cells lack what 2 things?

nuclei and mitochondria

16

Why can't red blood cells divide?

because of the lack of nuclei

17

How do red blood cells produce ATP?

through glycolysis

18

Changes in RBC counts reflect changes in blood's:

oxygen-carrying capacity

19

RBC formation:

erythropoiesis

20

Where does erythropoiesis occur?

red bone marrow

21

Low blood O2 causes kidneys and liver to release what?

EPO (erythropoietin)

22

What stimulates RBC production?

EPO (erythropoietin)

23

Required for DNA synthesis; necessary for the growth and division of all cells:

vitamin B12 and folic acid

24

Required for hemoglobin synthesis:

iron

25

Condition in which O2 carrying capacity of the blood is reduced due to deficiency of RBCs:

anemia

26

List the 8 major events in red blood cell destruction.

1. Squeezing through capillaries- get damaged
2. Macrophages in liver and spleen phagocytize damaged rbc
3. Hemoglobin decomposes into heme and globin
4. Heme decomposes into iron and biliverdin
5. Iron is used for synthesis of new hemoglobin
6. Biliverdin becomes bilirubin
7. Both are secreted as bile pigment
8. Globin is broken down into amino acids

27

What's another name for white blood cells?

leukocytes

28

WBCs are produced in red bone marrow, under control of what 2 hormones?

-interleukins
-colony-stimulating factors

29

Have granular cytoplasm and consist of neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils:

granulocytes

30

Do not have noticeable granules and consist of lymphocytes and monocytes:

agranulocytes

31

(Types of WBC)
-First to arrive at infection site (forms pus)
-Elevated in bacterial infection

neutrophils

32

(Types of WBC)
-Allergic reactions
-Defend against parasitic worm infestations

eosinophils

33

(Types of WBC)
-Release histamine to stimulate inflammation
-Release heparin to stop blood from clotting

basophils

34

(Types of WBC)
-Largest
-Leave bloodstream to become macrophages
-Phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, debris

monocytes

35

(Types of WBC)
-Smallest
-T cells and B cells are major types; both important in immunity
-T cells directly attack pathogens, tumor cells
-B cells produce antibodies

lymphocytes

36

(Functions of WBC)
WBCs can squeeze between the cells of a capillary wall and leave blood vessel; then migrate toward infection site:

diapedesis

37

(Functions of WBC)
Engulfing and digestion of pathogens; neutrophils and monocytes are most mobile and active phagocytes:

phagocytosis

38

(Functions of WBC)
Reaction that restricts spread of infection; promoted by basophils, by secretion of heparin and histamine; involves swelling and increased capillary permeability:

inflammatory response

39

(Functions of WBC)
Attraction of WBCs to an infection site, by chemicals released by damaged cells

positive chemotaxis

40

(WBC count)
-High WBC count
-Acute infections, vigorous exercise, great loss of body fluid

leukocytosis

41

(WBC count)
-Low WBC count
-Typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, polio, anemia

leukopenia

42

Cancer of white blood cells:

leukemia

43

Acute means:

suddenly and rapidly

44

Chronic means:

slowly and could remain undetected for months

45

Cancer of lymphocytes produced in lymph nodes:

lymphoid leukemia

46

Cancer of granulocytes produced in red bone marrow:

myeloid leukemia

47

What do platelets lack?

nucleus

48

Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes:

platelets

49

What are platelets produced by?

hemocytoblasts in response to thrombopoietin

50

What helps with hemostasis or stoppage of bleeding?

platelets

51

What causes smooth muscles in walls of broken blood vessels to contract?

serotonin

52

-Clear, straw-colored
-92% water
-Contains organic and inorganic chemicals
-Transports nutrients to help regulate fluid and electrolyte balance and maintain pH

plasma

53

T or F: plasma proteins are typically not used as energy source

T

54

Molecules that contain nitrogen, but are not proteins:

nonprotein nitrogenous substances (NPNs)

55

(NPNs)
Product of protein catabolism; about 50% of NPNs:

urea

56

(NPNs)
Product of nucleic acid catabolism:

uric acid

57

(NPNs)
Product of protein digestion:

amino acids

58

(NPNs)
Stores energy in phosphate bonds; regenerates ATP in muscles:

creatine

59

(NPNs)
Blood urea nitrogen; indicates health of kidney:

BUN

60

Plasma contains a variety of ions called:
-They ionize in water and can conduct electricity

electrolytes

61

Electrolytes are absorbed from where?
They are released as by-products of what?

intestines, cellular metabolism

62

What are the 2 most abundant electrolytes?

sodium and chloride

63

Stoppage of bleeding:

hemostasis

64

What are 3 actions that limit or prevent blood loss?

-blood vessel spasm
-platelet plug formation
-blood coagulation

65

Stimulated by cutting or breaking a small blood vessel:

vascular spasm

66

What muscle in blood vessel contracts rapidly?

smooth

67

What are vascular spasms triggered by?

pain receptor reflexes

68

How long do the responses last in vascular spasms?
How long do the effects last?

a few minutes, 30 minutes

69

What are platelet plug formations triggered by?

exposure of platelets to collagen

70

What is the most effective mechanism of hemostasis?

blood coagulation

71

Form blood clot in a series of reactions, in which each step activates next one; this is called:

cascade

72

What vitamin is necessary for functioning of some of the clotting factors?

k

73

Fibrin traps what?

blood cells

74

Triggered by blood clotting in contact with tissues outside of blood vessels:

extrinsic clotting

75

Damaged tissues release what?

thromboplastin

76

Thrombin converts fibrinogen into what?

insoluble fibrin threads

77

When fibrin threads stick to damaged blood vessel surfaces and trap blood cells and platelets:

blood clot

78

Clotting is an example of what kind of feedback?

positive

79

Activated when blood comes in contact with foreign surfaces:

intrinsic clotting

80

Plasma minus fibrinogen and most clotting factors:

serum

81

Stimulates smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts to repair damaged blood vessel walls:

platelet-derived growth factor

82

Digests fibrin threads and dissolves the blood clot:

plasmin

83

An abnormal blood clot that forms in a blood vessel:

thrombus

84

A blood clot moving through the blood vessels:

embolus

85

Blood clot in a vessel supplying a vital organ:

thrombosis

86

Death of tissues which have blocked blood vessels due to blood clot formation:

infarction

87

Blood clot that travels and then blocks a blood vessel in an organ:

embolism

88

Accumulation of fat in arterial linings can sometimes cause abnormal clot formation:

atherosclerosis

89

Clot formation due to pooling of stagnant blood, mainly in femoral or popliteal veins or deep veins of pelvis:

DVT

90

What are a few symptoms of DVT?

deep muscle pain, cramping, redness

91

(prevention of coagulation)
What discourages the accumulation of platelets and clotting factors?

smooth lining of blood vessels

92

As a clot forms, ______ absorbs ______ and prevents the clotting reaction from spreading.

fibrin, thrombin

93

What inactivates additional thrombin by binding to it and blocking its action on fibrinogen?

antithrombin

94

What 2 kinds of cells secrete heparin?

basophils and mast cells

95

Any molecule that evokes an immune response:

antigens

96

Proteins that react against a specific antigen:

antibodies

97

Clumping of RBCs, which occurs when an antibody encounters its specific antigen:

aggulation

98

There are 33 known antigens on RBC membranes, but how many can evoke a serious transfusion reaction?

only a few

99

When RBCs come in contact with antibodies against them, they will:

agglutinate