Ch 14: Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, And Blood Pressure Flashcards Preview

Physiology Final > Ch 14: Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, And Blood Pressure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 14: Cardiac Output, Blood Flow, And Blood Pressure Deck (104):
0

The first heart sound is associated with the diastole. T/F.

False

1

Opening of K gates will slow the heartbeat. T/F.

True

2

Resting cardiac muscle cells have a resting potential of ____ millivolts.

-90

3

The plateau of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to prolonged movement of ____ ions.

Calcium

4

The _____ wave of the EKG represents the ventricular repolarization.

T

5

All blood vessels are lined with?

Endothelial cells

6

Cardiac output is equal to?

Stroke volume x cardiac rate

7

The average heart rate is?

70 bpm

8

The average stroke volume is?

70-80 ml/beat

9

The average cardiac output is?

5,500 ml/minute

10

Spontaneous _____ occurs at SA node when HCN channels open, allowing Na+ in.

Depolarization

11

Sympathetic norepinephrine (vagus nerve) and adrenal epinephrine keep HCN channels open, _____ heart rate.

Increasing

12

Parasympathetic _______ opens K+ channels, slowing heart rate.

Acetylcholine

13

The ____ is the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole. It is sometimes called preload. The stroke volume increases with increased EDV.

End diastolic volume

14

The ____ is the frictional resistance in the arteries.

Total peripheral resistance

15

The ____ is the strength of ventricular contraction.

Contractility

16

What law increased EDV results in increased contractility and thus increased stroke volume?

Frank-Starling Law

17

Increased EDV stretch the myocardium, which increases ____ strength.

Contraction

18

Which control of contractility has sympathetic norepinephrine and adrenal epinephrine that can increase contractility by making more Ca2+ available to sarcomeres?

Extrinsic

19

_____ is controlled by factors that affect venous return, like total blood volume, and venous pressure.

End diastolic volume

20

___ of our body water is found in the cells.

2/3

21

Of the remaining, 80% exists in interstitial spaces and 20% is in the _______.

Blood plasma

22

Urine formation and water intake (drinking) also play a role in _____.

Blood volume

23

_____ is the hydrostatic pressure of the blood in the capillaries minus the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid outside the capillaries.

Net filtration pressure

24

______ is due to proteins dissolved in fluids.

Colloid osmotic pressure

25

____ is a combination of hydrostatic pressure and oncotic pressure that predicts movement of fluid across capillary membranes.

Starling forces

26

Starling forces predict the movement of fluid out of the capillaries at the _____ and into the capillaries at the ____.

Arteriole end
Venule end

27

____ is excessive accumulations of interstitial fluids.

Edema

28

The formation of urine beings with filtration of fluid through capillaries in the kidneys called ______.

Glomeruli

29

An ______ is produced by hypothalamus and released when osmoreceptors there detect increased plasma osmolarity.

Antidiuretic hormone

30

Increased water intake and decreased urine formation increase _____.

Blood volume

31

____ is secreted by adrenal cortex indirectly when blood volume and pressure are reduced.

Aldosterone

32

When blood pressure is low, cells in the kidneys secrets the enzyme renin is known as?

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

33

______ raises in blood pressure because of the vasoconstriction of small arteries and arterioles, stimulate thirst center in hypothalamus, and stimulates production of aldosterone in adrenal cortex.

Angiotensin II

34

_____ is produced by the atria of the heart when stretched.

Atrial natriuretic peptide

35

_____ is distributed unequally to different organs due to unequal resistance to blood flow through the organs.

Cardiac output

36

_____ of arterioles provides the greatest resistance to blood flow and can redirect flow to/from particular organs.

Vasoconstriction

37

The _____ increase total peripheral resistance through release of norepinephrine onto smooth muscle of arterioles in the viscera and skin to stimulate vasoconstriction.

Sympathetic nerves

38

____ is released onto skeletal muscles, resulting in increased vasodilation to these tissues.

Acetylcholine

39

Molecules produced by one tissue control another tissue with the same organ is called?

Paracrine control

40

Smooth muscle relaxation influenced by bradykinin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin I2 to produce ______.

Vasodilation

41

_______ stimulates smooth muscle contraction to produce vasoconstriction and raise total peripheral resistance.

Endothelin-1

42

_____ regulation is used by some organs (brain and kidney) to promote constant blood flow when there is fluctuation of blood pressure.

Intrinsic

43

Vascular smooth muscle responds to change in arterial blood pressure know as what?

Myogenic control mechanisms

44

The _______ supply blood to a massive number of capillaries.

Coronary arteries

45

Unlike most organs, blood flow is restricted during _____.

Systole

46

_____ tissue also has lots of mitochondria and respiratory enzymes, thus is metabolically very active.

Cardiac

47

During exercise, the coronary arteries _____ blood flow from 80 ml to 400 ml/minute/100 g tissue.

Increase

48

______ from sympathetic nerve fibers stimulate vasoconstriction, raising vascular resistance at rest.

Norepinephrine

49

_____ stimulates vasodilation and thus vascular resistance during exercise.

Adrenal epinephrine

50

_____ is enhanced by intrinsic metabolic control mechanisms.

Vasodilation

51

Even at rest, ____ muscles still receive 20-25% of the body's blood supply.

Skeletal

52

_____ can increase 5X due to increased cardiac rate.

Cardiac output

53

______ can increase some due to increased venous return.

Stroke volume

54

In _____ the brain cannot tolerate much variation in blood flow.

Cerebral circulation

55

When blood pressure legally, cerebral vessels automatically ______.

Dilate

56

When blood pressure rises, cerebral vessels automatically _____.

Constrict

57

The ____ can tolerate the greatest fluctuations in blood flow.

Skin

58

The skin helps control the body temperature in a changing environment by regulating blood flow is called?

Thermoregulation

59

The ____ shunts blood from arterioles directly to the venules.

Arteriovenous anastomoses

60

______ is affected by blood volume/stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and cardiac rate.

Blood pressure

61

______ blood pressure is low because of the large cross sectional area.

Capillary

62

_____ can control blood volume and thus stroke volume.

Kidneys

63

The _________ stimulates vasoconstriction of arterioles and increased cardiac output.

Sympathoadrenal system

64

______ is activated by changes in the blood pressure detected by baroreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinuses.

Baroreceptor reflex

65

The _____ center controls vasodilation a d contraction.

Vasomotor

66

The cardiac center controls ______.

Heart rate

67

Fall in blood pressure means an increase in _____ and decrease in ____ activity, resulting in increased heart rate and total peripheral resistance.

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

68

______ are activated by increased venous return to stimulate tachycardia and inhibit ADH release.

Atrial stretch reflexes

69

The blood pressure is measured in mmHg by an instrument called a _______.

Sphygmomanometer

70

A blood pressure cuff produces turbulent flow of blood in the brachial artery, which can be heard using a stethoscope is called sounds of _______.

Korotkoff

71

The cuff is first inflated to beyond systolic blood pressure to pinch off an artery. As pressure is released, the _____ sound is heard at systole and a reading can be taken.

First

72

The ____ Korotkoff sound is heard when the pressure in the cuff reaches diastolic pressure and a second reading can be taken.

Last

73

The average blood pressure is ____.

120/80

74

You you are taking someone's pulse, you are measuring their ____.

Heart rate

75

The difference between blood pressure at systole and at diastole is the ______.

Pulse pressure

76

The average pressure in the arteries in one cardiac cycle is the ______.

Mean arterial pressure

77

_____ is high blood pressure.

Hypertension

78

____ of Americans have hypertension.

20%

79

___ can increase the risk of cardiac diseases and stroke.

Hypertension

80

Most people fall into the category of _____.

Essential hypertension

81

The dangers of _____ are vascular damage within the organs, especially dangerous in the cerebral vessels and leading to stroke.

Hypertension

82

_______ occurs when there is inadequate blood flow to match oxygen usage in the tissues.

Circulatory shock

83

______ is due to low blood volume from an injury, dehydration, or burns.

Hypovolemic shock

84

Dangerously low blood pressure due to an infection is called?

Septic shock

85

Severe allergic reactions can cause _______ shock due to production of histamine and resulting vasodilation.

Anaphylactic

86

Spinal cord injury or anesthesis can cause ____ shock due to loss of sympathetic stimulation.

Neurogenic

87

Cardiac failure can cause _____ shock due to significant myocardial loss.

Cardiogenic

88

_______ occurs when cardiac output is not sufficient to maintain blood flow required by the body.

Congestive heart failure

89

What type of receptors do norepinephrine and epinephrine bind to in the heart?

B1- adrenergic

90

Acetylcholine bind to ____ receptors of the heart and causes the opening of ___ channels.

Muscarinic, K+

91

The cardiac control center of the _____ coordinates the autonomic innervation of the heart.

Medulla oblongata

92

Cardiac output would be increased by?

Positive chronotropic agents

93

Hydrostatic pressure is _____ and colloid osmotic pressure is _____ at the arterial end of a capillary.

Higher, lower

94

______ is a steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex which stimulates kidney salt reabsorption in the kidneys.

Aldosterone

95

Angiotensin I is formed from the plasma protein ___ by the action of the enzyme ____.

Angiotensinogen, renin

96

Sweat glands can also secrete _____ that stimulates vasodilation of skin arterioles to help reduce body temperature.

Bradykinin

97

Which blood vessels have the highest cross-sectional area?

Capillaries

98

Which blood vessels have the lowest pressure?

Veins

99

Increased blood pressure stimulates?

Decreased sympathetic outflow to the heart

100

The last Korotkoff sound occurs when the blood pressure is equal to?

Diastolic pressure

101

The mean arterial pressure of a person with a blood pressure 128/68 would be?

88

102

Secondary hypertension may result from?

A renin secreting tumor

103

Cardiogenic shock can result from ?

Myocardial infarction