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Innate vs adaptive immunity

-Innate Immunity- Non-adaptive ,first-line, immediate response but not very specific
Buys precious time for the more specific second line of defense to engage
Operates continuously from the time of infection through the incubation period and until the infection ends

-Adaptive Immunity- Second-line
Takes time to develop but is highly specific to its target
Becomes apparent toward the end of the prodromal phase and is maintained long after the infection clears


Antigen, antibody

-An antigen is any chemical, compound, or structure foreign to the body that will elicit an adaptive immune response (such as production of antibodies).

-Adaptive immune mechanisms can recognize billions of different antigenic structures and launch a directed attack against each one.


WBCs and their basic functions

-Monocytes-Circulate in the blood and then migrate to tissues where they differentiate into macrophages and dendritic cells

-Macrophages- Widely distributed throughout the body and most likely to make first contact with invading pathogens
Can kill invaders directly and can “present” antigens on their cell surface to T cells

-Dendritic Cells- Located in the spleen and lymph nodes, they can also take up and present small antigens on their cell surface to T cells
Different from macrophages in structure and because they can take up small soluble antigens from the surroundings as well as phagocytizing whole bacteria


Know the steps of phagocytosis and how some organisms evade phagocytosis



WBC differential-what does it mean if neutrophils are elevated? Eosinophils?, lymphocytes? Basophils? Total WBCs? You will be given table 15.1



Physical barriers, chemical barriers of the body

physical barriers:
-Peyer’s patches are aggregations of lymphoid tissues that dot the intestinal surface, along the lower small intestine.
-M cells are specialized parts of Peyer’s patches that are wedged between epithelial cells. M stands for “microfold” which describes their appearance.
-In addition to the respiratory mucociliary elevator, microbes larger than 100 µm become trapped by hairs and cilia lining the nasal cavity.
-Sneezing, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs, is designed to clear the organism from the respiratory tract.
-Organisms that make it to the alveoli are not easily expelled by a sneeze but are met by phagocytic cells called alveolar macrophages that ingest and kill most bacteria and send out chemical signals to attract other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems.

chemical barriers:
-Sweat glands (high salt, acid)
-Sebaceous glands (sebum, acid)
-Stomach acid
-Transferrin binds iron in plasma
-Lactoferrin in saliva, mucus, milk binds iron
-Defensins in mucus, skin secretions and extracellular fluid
-Lysozyme in tears, saliva, mucus
-Disrupts peptidoglycan


Steps of Inflammation an the 4 signs



Fever, pyrogens

-Fever (elevated body temperature) is a natural reaction to infection and is usually accompanied by general symptoms such as sweating, chills, and the sensation of feeling cold.
-Substances that cause fever are called pyrogens.
-External pyrogens (such as bacterial toxins) originate outside the body, while internal pyrogens (such as interferons, tumor necrosis factor and IL-6) are made by the body itself.


Ch. 17 Active vs. passive immunity and natural vs. artificial immunity



Ch. 16 Primary vs Secondary immune response



Ch. 17 Vaccines slide 65, types of agents used