CH 15 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 15 Deck (28):
1

Central dogma

DNA πŸ”œ RNA πŸ”œ PROTEIN

2

Transcription

DNA πŸ”œ RNA

3

Translation

RNA πŸ”œ PROTEIN

Synthesis of polypeptides
Take place at ribosome
Requires several kinds of RNA

4

In transcription DNA is

Template

5

In transcription mRNA is

Product

6

RNA polymerase function is

Enzyme responsible for copying DNA sequence into a RNA sequence

7

Differences between DNA and RNA

DNA
-Deoxyribosome sugar
-Thymine base
-Double strand

RNA
-Ribosome sugar
-Uracil Base
-Single Strand

8

Prokaryotic Transcription

1) Initiation;
RNA polymerase binds to promoter
2) Elongation;
RNA grows in 5’-to-3’ direction as ribonucleotides are added.
3) Termination;
Stop to polymerase, hairpin in RNA causes to stop

9

Does transcription and translation occur at the same place in prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Why?

No.
In prokaryotes it occur in the cytoplasm.
In Eukaryotes it moves to the nucleus because the RNA is modified before the translation.

10

What are the 3 types of RNA pol in eukaryotes?

1) Messenger RNA (mRNA); Protein
2) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA); Ribosome
3)Transfer RNA (tRNA); Delivery AA

11

What occurs in the 3 steps of eukaryotes transcription?

1) Initiation;
Interact with RNA polymerase to form Initiation complex promoter.
2) Elongation;
RNA transcribed from the DNA template.
3) Termination;
Not as well defined.

12

Define 5’ Cap and it’s function

Protects from degradation involved in translation indication

13

Define 3’ Poly A tail

Protection from degradation

14

Introns

Non-coding sequences

15

Exons

Sequences that will be translated (into proteins). Have code for DNA.

16

Define splicing

Removal of introns.

17

Spliceosome

The one removing the introns

18

Start codon

AUG

19

Stop codons

UAA
UGA
UAG

20

What is an anticodon and where is found

Found in the loop of the tRNA and is complementary to the mRNA codons.

21

What is a codon?

Block of 3 RNA nucleotides corresponding to an amino acid

22

Function of rRNA

Catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains

23

Function of tRNA

Carry amino acids to the ribosome for incorporation into a polypeptide

24

What enzymes charges the tRNA with amino acid?

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases

25

What happens at each of the three stores in the ribosome A, P and E sites?

-P site; Binding the tRNA attaches to growing peptide chain.
-A site; Binds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid.
-E site; Binds the tRNA that carried the last amino acid, tRNA exits ribosome.

26

Translation occurs in 3 steps

1) Initiation;
-Initiating AA is methionine
-More complicated initiation complex
2) Elongation;
-Fewer tRNAs than codons
-Protein is made
3) Termination
-Stop codon

27

Ribosome primary functions

-Decode the mDNA
-Form peptide bonds

28

Peptidyl transfersmse

-Enzymatic component of the ribosome
-Forms peptide bonds between amino acids