Flashcards in CH 15 Deck (28):
DNA 🔜 RNA 🔜 PROTEIN
DNA 🔜 RNA
RNA 🔜 PROTEIN
Synthesis of polypeptides
Take place at ribosome
Requires several kinds of RNA
In transcription DNA is
In transcription mRNA is
RNA polymerase function is
Enzyme responsible for copying DNA sequence into a RNA sequence
Differences between DNA and RNA
RNA polymerase binds to promoter
RNA grows in 5’-to-3’ direction as ribonucleotides are added.
Stop to polymerase, hairpin in RNA causes to stop
Does transcription and translation occur at the same place in prokaryotes or eukaryotes. Why?
In prokaryotes it occur in the cytoplasm.
In Eukaryotes it moves to the nucleus because the RNA is modified before the translation.
What are the 3 types of RNA pol in eukaryotes?
1) Messenger RNA (mRNA); Protein
2) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA); Ribosome
3)Transfer RNA (tRNA); Delivery AA
What occurs in the 3 steps of eukaryotes transcription?
Interact with RNA polymerase to form Initiation complex promoter.
RNA transcribed from the DNA template.
Not as well defined.
Define 5’ Cap and it’s function
Protects from degradation involved in translation indication
Define 3’ Poly A tail
Protection from degradation
Sequences that will be translated (into proteins). Have code for DNA.
Removal of introns.
The one removing the introns
What is an anticodon and where is found
Found in the loop of the tRNA and is complementary to the mRNA codons.
What is a codon?
Block of 3 RNA nucleotides corresponding to an amino acid
Function of rRNA
Catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains
Function of tRNA
Carry amino acids to the ribosome for incorporation into a polypeptide
What enzymes charges the tRNA with amino acid?
What happens at each of the three stores in the ribosome A, P and E sites?
-P site; Binding the tRNA attaches to growing peptide chain.
-A site; Binds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid.
-E site; Binds the tRNA that carried the last amino acid, tRNA exits ribosome.
Translation occurs in 3 steps
-Initiating AA is methionine
-More complicated initiation complex
-Fewer tRNAs than codons
-Protein is made
Ribosome primary functions
-Decode the mDNA
-Form peptide bonds