Ch 15- Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

A&P 2 > Ch 15- Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 15- Cardiovascular System Deck (128):
1

The heart pumps blood through the blood vessels in this order:

arteries- arterioles- capillaries- venues- veins- heart

2

(circuits)
-Transports oxygen-poor blood from heart to lungs, and back to heart
-In lungs, blood picks up O2 and drops off CO2

pulmonary circuit

3

(circuits)
-Trasports oxygen-rich blood from heart to all body cells, and back to heart
-Blood delivers nutrients to cells, and removes wastes

systemic circuit

4

The left side of hear contains what kind of blood?

The right side of hear contains what kind of blood?

oxygen-rich blood, oxygen poor blood

5

(coverings of heart)
Covering of heart and large blood vessels:

pericardium

6

(coverings of heart)
Outer layer, that surrounds double-layered serous membrane:

fibrous pericardium

7

(coverings of heart)
Deep to fibrous pericardium; outer layer of serous membrane:

parietal pericardium

8

(coverings of heart)
Inner layer of serous membrane; attached to surface of heart; also called epicardium:

visceral pericardium

9

(wall of heart)
Middle layer; composed of cardiac muscle tissue; thickest layer:

myocardium

10

(wall of heart)
Inner layer; forms inner lining of all heart chambers; thin layer:

endocardium

11

(heart chambers and valves)
Thin-walled upper chambers; receive blood returning to heart:

atria

12

(heart chambers and valves)
flap-like projections from atria, which allow atrial expansion:

auricles

13

(heart chambers and valves)
Thick-walled lower chambers; pump blood into arteries:

ventricles

14

(heart chambers and valves)
Receives blood returning from systemic circuit; pumps blood to right ventricle:

right atrium

15

(heart chambers and valves)
Receives blood from the right atrium; pumps blood to lungs:

right ventricle

16

(heart chambers and valves)
Receives blood from pulmonary veins; pumps blood to left ventricle:

left atrium

17

(heart chambers and valves)
Receives blood from the left atrium; pumps blood to systemic circuit:

left ventricle

18

(valves of the heart)
-Prevents blood from moving from the right ventricle into the right atrium during ventricular contraction
-AV valve

tricuspid valve

19

(valves of the heart)
-Prevents blood from moving from the left ventricle into the left atrium during ventricular contraction
-AV valve

mitral valve

20

(valves of the heart)
-Prevents blood from moving from pulmonary trunk into the right ventricle during ventricular relaxation
-Semilunar valve

pulmonary valve

21

(valves of the heart)
-Prevents blood from moving from the aorta into the left ventricle during ventricular relaxation
-Semilunar valve

aortic valve

22

What is the path of blood through the heart?

RA
tricuspid valve
RV
Pulm. valve
Pulm. trunk
Pulm. artery
Pulm. capillary
Pulm. vein
LA
Mitral valve
LV
Aortic valve
Aorta
Sys. artery
Sys. capillary
Sys. vein
Vena cava

23

Supplies blood to tissues of the heart:

left and right coronary artery

24

Replacement of most of a failing heart with a donor heart:

heart transplant

25

Mechanical half-heart, used in some cases temporarily, until donor heart is available:

LVAD

26

Titanium and plastic artificial heart, used in people that cannot have heart transplant, and do not have long to live:

Implantable Replacement Heart

27

Cardiac muscle tissue can now be cultured from altered somatic cells or from stem cells:

Stem Cell Technology

28

Systole:

contract

29

Diastole:

relax

30

What makes the valves in the cardiac cycle open and close?

pressure changes

31

Describe the events in the cardiac cycle during atrial systole and ventricular diastole.

-Ventricles=relaxed
-AV valves open, semilunar valves close
-Atrial systole pushes remaining 30% of blood into the ventricle- causes ventricular pressure to increase

32

Describe the events in the cardiac cycle during ventricular systole and atrial diastole.

-AV valve close
-The atria relaxes
-Blood flows into atria from venue cave and pulm. veins
-Ventricular pressure increases and opens the semilunar valves
-Blood flows into pulmonary trunk and aorta

33

What are sounds of the heart due to?

closing of heart valves

34

(heart sounds)
-First heart sound
-Occurs during ventricular systole
-Associated with closing of AV valves

Lubb

35

(heart sounds)
-The second heart sound
-Occurs during ventricular diastole
-Associated with closing of pulmonary and aortic semilunar valves

Dupp

36

Cardiac muscle cells form:

branching networks

37

Intercalated discs between cells contain what?

gap junctions

38

A mass of merging cells that function as a unit:

functional syncytium

39

-A group of clumps and strands of specialized cardiac muscle tissue, which initiates and distributes impulses throughout myocardium
-Coordinates events of cardiac cycle

cardiac conduction system

40

Pacemaker:

SA node

41

Conducts impulses from SA node to atria:

internal atrial muscle

42

Conduct impulses from SA node to AV node:

junctional fibers

43

Conducts impulses to AV bundle; delays impulse, so that atria finish contracting before ventricles contract:

AV node

44

Conducts impulses rapidly between AV node and bundle branches:

AV bundle

45

Split off from AV bundle, conduct impulses to Purkinje fibers on both sides of heart:

left and right bundle branches

46

Large fibers that conduct impulses to ventricular myocardium:

purkinje fibers

47

-A recording of electrical changes that occur in the myocardium during the cardiac cycle
-Hearts ability to conduct impulses

EKG

48

Atrial depolarization; occurs just prior to atrial contraction:

P wave

49

Ventricular depolarization; occurs just prior to ventricular contraction:

QRS complex

50

Ventricular repolarization; occurs just prior to ventricular relaxation:

T wave

51

-Via vagus nerves decrease heart rate, due to influence on SA and AV nodes
-"Rest and digest"

parasympathetic impulses

52

-Via accelerator nerves increase heart rate, due to influence on SA and AV nodes, and ventricular myocardium

sympathetic impulses

53

-Arise from cardiac control center in medulla oblongata; balance inhibitory and excretory effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers
-"Fight or fight"

baroreceptor reflexes

54

Altered heart rhythms:

arrhythmias

55

Uncoordinated chaotic contraction of small areas of myocardium:

fibrillation

56

Non-life threatening kind of fibrillation:

atrial

57

Often fatal kind of fibrillation:

ventricular

58

Blood vessels form a __________ circuit.

closed

59

(blood vessels)
-Carry blood away from the ventricles of heart
-Thick, strong wall, thicker than walls of veins
-Transports blood under high blood pressure
-Give rise to smaller arterioles
-Vasoconstriction and vasodilation

arteries

60

(blood vessels)
-Receive blood from the arteries, and carry it to the capillaries
-Thinner walls than arteries (same 3 layers or tunics)
-Walls of middle and outer layers become thinner as arterioles become smaller
-Vasoconstriction and vasodilation

arterioles

61

(blood vessels)
-Sites of exchange of substances
-Smallest-diameter blood vessels
-Connect the smallest arterioles and the smallest venules
-Walls consist of endothelium ONLY
-Semi-permeable
-Regulated mainly by pre capillary sphincters

capillaries

62

(blood vessels)
Receive blood from the capillaries, and conduct it to veins:

venules

63

(blood vessels)
Receive blood from venues, and carry it back to the atria of the heart:

veins

64

Formation of new blood vessels:

angiogenesis

65

(tunics in arteries)
Innermost layer:

tunica interna

66

(tunics in arteries)
Smooth muscle and elastic tissue:

tunica media

67

(tunics in arteries)
Outer layer, connective tissue:

tunica externa

68

Smooth muscle surrounding capillary when it branches off arteriole:

precapillary sphincters

69

The higher the metabolic rate in a tissue,:

denser its capillary networks are

70

In what tissues is there rich capillary supply?

muscle and nerve

71

(capillary exchange)
-Most important method of transfer
-Substances in capillaries are exchanged by

diffusion

72

Lipid-soluble substances diffuse through:

cell membrane

73

Water-soluble substances diffuse through:

membrane channels and slits

74

(capillary exchange)
Hydrostatic pressure forces molecules through membrane:

filtration

75

(capillary exchange)
-Presence of impermeant solute, such as plasma proteins, inside capillaries creates osmotic pressure
-Draws water into capillaries, opposing filtration

osmosis

76

H2O and other substances leave capillary, because hydrostatic pressure > osmotic pressure:

arteriolar end of capillary

77

H2O enters capillary, because osmotic pressure > hydrostatic pressure:

venular end of capillary

78

-Microscopic vessels that transport blood from the capillaries to veins
-Thinner walls and less smooth muscle than arterioles

venules

79

-Thinner walls than arteries (3 layers or tunics)
-Tunica media less developed
-Carry blood under relatively LOW pressure
-Functions as blood reservoirs
-Many have flap-like valves

veins

80

(blood vessel disorders)
Deposits of cholesterol plaque form in inner lining of walls of arteries:

atherosclerosis

81

(blood vessel disorders)
A bulge in the wall of an artery, formed when blood pressure dilates a weakened area of the vessel; can burst wall of artery:

aneurysm

82

(blood vessel disorders)
Inflammation of a vein; common disorder:

phlebitis

83

(blood vessel disorders)
Abnormal and irregular dilations in superficial veins; most common in legs:

varicose veins

84

The force the blood exerts against the inner walls of the blood vessels:

blood pressure

85

Blood pressure circulates:

the blood

86

The term "blood pressure" most commonly refers to pressure in:

systemic arteries

87

Blood moves from _______ to ______ pressure throughout the vascular system.

higher, lower

88

Arterial blood pressure rises when ventricles:
Arterial blood pressure falls when ventricles:

contract, relax

89

The max pressure reached during ventricular contraction:
Is it read on the top or bottom?

systolic pressure, top

90

The minimum pressure remaining before next ventricular contraction:
Is it read on the top or bottom?

diastolic, bottom

91

Difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures:

pulse pressure

92

Average pressure in arterial system; represents average force driving blood to the tissue:

mean arterial pressure

93

Arterial blood pressure is typically measured with a:

sphygmomanometer

94

Blood pressure ________ as distance from left ventricle increases.

decreases

95

As blood pressure increases what 5 things increase?

-blood volume
-heart rate
-stroke volume
-blood viscosity
-peripheral resistance

96

Volume of blood that enters the arteries with each ventricular contraction (-70 mL/beat):

stroke volume

97

-Volume of blood discharged from a ventricle each minute
-Blood pressure varies with this
-Increase in SV or HR causes increase in this, which increases the blood pressure

cardiac output

98

-Sum of volumes of plasma and formed elements
-Usually about 5L
-Blood pressure is directly proportional to this
-Any factor that changes this can change blood pressure
-Ex. decreased blood volume, due to hemorrhage, decreases blood pressure

blood volume

99

-Force of friction between blood and walls of blood vessels
-Blood pressure must overcome this in order to flow
-Factors that change this can change blood pressure
-Vasoconstriction of arterioles increases this, which increases blood pressure

peripheral resistance

100

-Difficulty with which molecules of fluid flow past each other
-Any factor that alters concentration of blood cells or plasma proteins also alter blood:

viscosity

101

Greater viscosity, the greater:

the resistance to blood flow

102

Blood cells and plasma proteins increase:

the viscosity of the blood

103

Greater the resistance to flow---> greater the force necessary to transport blood--->

greater the blood pressure becomes

104

-Long-lasting elevated arterial blood pressure
-Causes: increased Na+, stress that activated the sympathetic nervous system, obesity, kidney disease
-"Silent killer" because no direct symptoms
-Contributes to formation of atherosclerosis
-May lead to coronary thrombosis or embolism

hypertension (high blood pressure)

105

BP=

COxPR

106

Only partly a direct result of heart action:

venous blood flow

107

What 4 things is venous blood flow dependent on?

-skeletal muscle contraction
-breathing movements
-vasoconstriction
-valves

108

All veins drain into:

right atrium

109

Pressure in the right atrium is called:

central venous pressure

110

Where does central venous pressure effect pressure?

peripheral veins

111

What increases central venous pressure?

weakly beating heart

112

An increase in central venous pressure causes blood to back up into the peripheral veins:

peripheral edema

113

Pulmonary circuit is the:

heart-lungs

114

Systemic circuit is the:

heart-body

115

******List the pulmonary circuit********

-r. ventricle
-pulm. trunk
-pulm. arteries
-lobar branches, repeated divisions
-pulm. arterioles
-pulm. capillaries
-pulm. venues and veins
-l. atrium

116

*******List the systemic circuit**********

-l. ventricle
-aorta
-all arteries and arterioles leading to body tissues
-systemic capillaries
-systemic venues and veins
-r. atrium

117

Blood in pulmonary arteries and arterioles is low in ______ and high in ______.

O2, CO2

118

Where does gas exchange occur in pulmonary circuit?

capillaries

119

What kind of blood is in systemic circuit?

oxygen-rich

120

-Largest artery in body
-Supplies blood to all systemic arteries

aorta

121

-Joins the carotid and vertebral artery system
-These arteries supply blood to the brain; the arrangement provides alternate pathways for blood to reach the brain
-The cerebral arteries emerge from the circle to supply blood to brain tissues

cerebral arterial circle

122

Gives off branches in the neck, and then continues into the arm:

subclavian artery

123

Blood reaches the thoracic wall via branches of several vessels, including the subclavian artery and the:

thoracic aorta

124

The abdominal aorta divides into the ________ _______ ______ which supplies blood to the pelvic organs, gluteal region, and lower limbs.

common iliac arteries

125

Supplies blood to the pelvic and gluteal areas:

internal iliac artery

126

Provide the major blood supply to the lower limbs:

external iliac artery

127

Drain blood from the face, scalp, and superficial neck:

external jugular veins

128

Drain blood from the brain, and deep portions of the face and neck:

internal jugular veins