Ch. 15 Tracing Evolutionary History Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 15 Tracing Evolutionary History Deck (38):
1

Macroevolution

The main events in evolutionary history of life on Earth
- Using evidence from sequence of fossils at different sites (strata)
- eras -> periods -> epoch

2

What are the 4 eras?

1) Precambrian
2) Paleozoic
3) Mesozoic
4) Cenozoic

3

Do the record of rock tell the actual ages in years of fossils?

No. Only tells the chronicles of the relative age of fossils. The order of evolution.

4

Radiometric dating

A method for determining the age of fossils and rocks from the ratio of a radioactive isotope to the nonradioactive isotope of the same element in the sample

5

Continental Drift

A change in the position of continents resulting from the incessant slow movement (floating) of the plates of Earth’s crust on the underlying molten mantle. It has caused continents to periodically fuse and break up thru out geological history.

6

Pangaea

Super continent consisting of all the major land masses of Earth fused together; continental drift formed Pangaea near end of Paleozoic era

7

Laurasia

Northern landmass formed when continental drift split Pangaea during Mesozoic era

8

Gondwana

Southern landmass formed during the Mesozoic era when continental drift split Pangaea

9

What did Pangaea split into?

Laurasia and Gondwana

10

Plate Tectonic

Forces w/in planet Earth that causes movements of the crust, resulting in continental drift, volcanoes, and earthquakes

11

What is a result of mass extinction?

Massive dip in species diversity leads to explosive increase in diversity

12

How do key adaptations evolve?

1) Gradual refinement of existing structures for new functions
- exaptation
- structure adapted to alternate function
2) Changes that affect organism's development
- mutations of genes

13

Exaptation

A structure that has evolved in one environment context and later becomes adapted for a different function in a different environmental context

14

Paedomorphosis

Retention of juvenile body features in an adult

15

What accounts for evolutionary trends?

Species that endure longest/greatest new # of species determines the direction of trend.
- unequal survival/reproduction/speciation
- evolution is response to interactions b/w organism and current environment

16

Phylogeny

Evolutionary history of a species/group of related species

17

Phylogenic trees

A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships amongst organisms
- based on available evidence

18

Systematics

Scientific study of biological diversity and its classification

19

Binomial Nomenclature

A two-part, Latinized name of a species
- genus + species

20

Genus

In classification, the taxonomic category above species; first part of binomial

21

Taxons

A proper name in the taxonomic hierarchy used to classify organisms

22

What is the order of taxon?

1) Domain
2) Kingdom
3) Phyla (subphylum)
4) Class
5) Order
6) Family
7) Genus
8) Species

23

Convergent Evolution

Adaptive change resulting in non homologous (analogous) similarities among organisms; species from different evolutionary lineages come to represent each other (evolve analogous structures) as a result of living in very similar environments

24

Amino Acid Sequencing

determining the sequence of amino acid in polypeptide
- most precise
- degree of similarity in sequence = degree in phylogenetic relationship b/w species

25

What are the two tools of systematics for molecular biology?

1) Protein Comparison
2) DNA & RNA Comparisons

26

DNA – DNA hybridization

A method of determining the relatedness b/w different species by measuring the extent of hydrogen bonding between single strands of their DNA molecules; also refers more generally to hydrogen bonding b/w DNA from any two sources (for example, b/w an organism’s DNA and a chemically synthesized DNA probe)

27

DNA Sequence Analysis

Determination of nucleotide sequences of segments of DNA

28

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Sequence Analysis

Determination of nucleotide sequence in ribosomal RNA molecules

29

What are the three methods of DNA & RNA Comparisons?

1) DNA - DNA Hybridization
2) DNA Sequence Analysis
3) Ribosomal (rRNA) Sequence Analysis

30

Cladistic Analysis

The study of evolutionary history; specifically, the scientific search for monophyletic taxa (elades), taxonomic groups composed of an ancestor and all its descendants

31

Monophyletic taxa

a taxonomic group composed of an ancestor and all of its descendants

32

outgroup

in a cladistics study of evolutionary relationships among taxa of organisms, a taxon or group of taxa w/ a known relationship to, but not a member of, the taxa being studied

33

ingroup

a cladistics study of evolutionary relationships among taxa of organisms, the group of taxa that is actually being analyzed

34

Derived Characters

homologous features that have changed from a primitive (ancestral) condition and that are unique to an evolutionary lineage; features not found in ancestors of the lineage

35

Primitive Characters

homologous features in members of a lineage and also in the ancestors of the lineage; ancestral features (use outgroup)

36

Parsimony

in scientific studies, the search for the least complex explanation for an observed phenomenon

37

5 kingdom classification schemes?

1) Monera
2) Plantae
3) Fungi
4) Animalia
5) Protista

38

3 domain classification schemes?

1) Bacteria
2) Archaea
3) Eukarya