Ch 16 & 17 Flashcards Preview

Immunology > Ch 16 & 17 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 16 & 17 Deck (69):
1

Involves a selective inhibiting of the responsiveness to a given antigen or set of antigens

Specific immune tolerance

2

The initial effort to minimize the risk of rejection is to genetically match the donor and recipient as closely as possible

Therapeutic intervention

3

Attempts to repeat grafts that have previously been rejected usually result n an accelerated graft rejection

Second set rejection

4

Preexisting antibodies that are present in the absence of known exposure or immunization

Natural antibodies

5

Most rapid type of rejection
Initiated and completed within a few days of graft placement

Hyperacute rejections

6

Rapid graft rejection because of prior sensitization of the graft recipient

Second set rejection

7

Occur much sooner after graft emplacement than do chronic rejections
He grafts establish vascular connections and function normally for a relatively short period before the first signs of rejection appear

Acute rejections

8

Are the slowest and the least vigorous yow of rejection
The transplanted tissue or organs establish a vascular connection and proceed to function for weeks, months and even years before signs of deterioration due to immune attack become evident

Chronic rejections

9

Can occur only when some of the MHC class I or II molecules on donor cells are identical to those on recipient cells

Direct recognition

10

Occurs when recipient APCs process and present peptide fragments derived from the ingestion, processing, and presentation of cellular debris from donor cells-debris that contains the donor histacompatibility antigens-and present it to recipient T cells

Indirect recognition

11

Several different characteristics have been noted that distinguish the effects on transplantation or differences between host and donor at MHC I or II loci from these differences

Non MHC or minor

12

New sets of inbred animals and they permit comparisons among organisms that differ from one another by only a small chromosomal segment in common

Congenic strains

13

Were originally established in experimental studies, particularly in mice, but are applicable to human transplantation as well

Laws of transplantation

14

Accomplished by mating of closely related individuals

Inbreeding

15

Brother-sister matings produced and are hypothetically homozygous

Inbred strains

16

With respect to location, tissues or organs that are placed in their normal anatomic location

Orthotopic grafts

17

Grafts that are placed into site other than their normal one

Heterotropic graft

18

Those transferred from one part of an individual to another location on that same inidividual

Autografts

19

Those transferred between different individuals who are genetically identical or nearly

Syngeneic grafts

20

Transferred between two genetically disparate individuals of the same species

Allogeneic grafts or allografts

21

Exchanged between members of different species

Xenogeneic grafts or xenografts

22

Genetic diversity in humans virtually ensures that no two individuals are genetically identical

Laws of transplantation

23

They are expressed whether present as a single copy or two copies

Codominance

24

Recipients immune system looks for certain genetically encoded molecules on the surfaces of the donor cells

Histocompability antigens

25

A genetically encoded molecule that can be recognized by the immune system of another individual of the same species

Histocompatibility antigen

26

Failure of mechanisms to inactivate or eliminate self reactive cells leads to

Autoimmunity

27

Results from the deliberate inactivation or destruction of lymphocytes bearing BCRs or TCRs that recognize and bind self epitopes

Self tolerance

28

Occurs during the early differentiation of B cells in the bone marrow and T cells in the thymus

Central tolerance

29

Failure to respond to antigen expressed by self tissues

Self tolerance

30

Epitope recognition by BCRs of developing B cells within the bone marrow triggers their apoptotic death

Negative selection

31

Control or eliminate autoreactive B and T cells afer they exit the bone marrow or thymus

Peripheral tolerance

32

Binding of TCRs to an appropriate pMHC I or pMHC II on the surface of antigen presenting cells provides the first signal for activation of T cells, butT cells must also receive second signals from the APCs for activation to proceed

Anergy

33

Receipt of the first signal in the absence of second signals cause naive T cells to enter a state of inactivity

Anergy

34

Tolerance of self epitopes can also be induced by regulatory cells

Suppression

35

Regulatory cells inhibit the activity of other cells

Suppression

36

Immune unresponsiveness

Anergy

37

Induction of of an immune response to an infectious organism, the consequence of which is a cross reactive immune response to self antigens that may have close structural similarities to molecules of the infectious agent

Molecular mimicry

38

Process in which infection by particular microbes is associated with the subsequent development of specific autoimmune diseases

Molecular mimicry

39

Involving the lower spine

Ankylosing spondylitis

40

Affecting the joints of the lower limbs and the gastrointestinal/genital/urinary tracts

Reiter disease

41

Inflammatory arthritic disease occur more frequently in individuals who have had food poisoning

Reactive arthritis

42

An autoimmune disease involving the production of antibodies against acetylcholine receptor on skeletal muscle leading to progressive weakness and death

Myasthenia gravia

43

Involves inhibiting general immune responsiveness without regard to the specificity

Immune suppression

44

Another phenomenon that may contribute to the influence of infectious organisms on autoimmunity

Epitope spreading

45

The epitope that initiates a response leading to autoimmunity might not be the epitope that is targeted by immune responses that develop later during the pathogenesis of the disease

Epitope spreading

46

An autoimmune disease characterized by the production of autoantibodies to different autoantigens and especially to DNA

Systemic lupus erythematosus

47

Sites in the body that are associated with some degree of isolation from the immune system

Immunologically privileged sites

48

Some self molecules are sequestered and are normally never exposed to the immune system for various reasons

Sequestered antigens

49

Binds to Fas on activated T cells, those T cells undergo an apoptotic death

Fas ligand

50

Member of the TNF receptor family expressed on the cell surface. Engagement of this triggers apoptosis of the bearing cell

Fas

51

Consists of dense, tightly packed vascular endothelium that limits the flow of cells and large molecules from the vasculature into the brain, thus decreasing the ability of the immune system to infiltrate the brain

Blood brain barrier

52

If the molecule is altered by denaturation or cleavage, however, the hidden internal epitopes may become exposed and available for recognition and binding by antibodies

Cryptic epitopes

53

An anti-immunoglobulin antibody directed against denatured IgG present in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatoid diseases

Rheumatoid factors

54

Spontaneously arising non self antigens found on cell membranes, usually associate with neoplasia

Neoantigens

55

Some autoimmune diseases result from the binding of self reactive antibodies, leading to type II and type III hypersensitivity responses

Humoral associated autoimmune diseases

56

Diseases involve numerous different molecules, cells, and tissues that are targeted by the autoimmune responses

Autoimmune diseases

57

Type IV hypersensitivity responses involve cell mediated injury leading to autoimmune diseases

Cell mediated autoimmune diseases

58

The risks for many autoimmune diseases appear to be associated with the presence of particular HLA genes

HLA association with autoimmune diseases

59

Is the failure to respond in an aggressive way against an epitope recognized by the immune system

Tolerance

60

Results from a loss of self tolerance through the failure to inactivate or eliminate self reactive cells

Autoimmunity

61

Occurs in the primary lymphoid organs during the early development of B and T cells

Central tolerance

62

Results from mechanisms that inactivate or eliminate B and T cells that are in circulation

Peripheral tolerance

63

Of B and T cells occurs when naive lymphocytes bind via their BCR orTCR but fail to receive the second signals provided by T cells and APCs that are necessary for activation

Anergy

64

Inhibit responses by other immune cells

Suppressor T cells

65

Involves The generation of responses to microbial epitopes that may cross react with host epitopes that are structurally very similar to the microbial ones

Molecular mimicry

66

Occurs when a response to an epitope leads to the generation of responses to one or more other epitopes

Epitope spreading

67

Numbers may decline with age, permitting other self reactive cells to escape regulation and initiate autoimmune disease

Suppressor T cells

68

Are located in anatomical sites that are normally sheltered from the immune system by specialized anatomic structures or other mechanisms

Sequestered antigens

69

Are non self antigens but may lead to conditions that mimic autoimmunity

Neoantigens