ch 16 frontal lobe Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ch 16 frontal lobe Deck (31):
1

anatomy

tissue anterior to central sulcus-motor, premotor, prefrontal

2

subdivisions

premotor and supplementary motor cortex, frontal and supplementary eye field

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prefrontal cortex

area of the frontal lobe that receives input from the dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus
divisions: dorsolateral inferior, medial

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motor area connections

projects to spinal motor neurons, cranial nerves that control the face, basal ganglia and red neuclues

5

premotor area connections

direct movement through coticospinal projections or motor projections, gets input from posterior parietal regions and dorsolateral prefrontal area

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eye fields

receive from PG and superior colliculus

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all premotor areas get projections from

dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--controls eye and limb movement

8

prefrontal area connections

end points of ventral (object recognition) and dorsal (spatial info) visual streams
dorsolateral prefrontal area-reciprocal connections with post pari and STS, extensive connections with cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, superior colliculus, input from dopamingeric cells in tegmentum

9

orbital frontal cortex connections

input from temporal lobe, amygdala, gustatory cortex, somatosensory cortex, olfactory cortex, dopamingeric cells in tegmentum, projects to hypothalamus and amygdala

10

theory of function for frontal lobe

planning and selecting, persistence and ignoring other stimuli, keeping track of whats been done--all executive functions, responds to internal external and context clues

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theory of function for preomotor cortex

-selects movements to be executed, choose behavior in response to external cues, increase in premotor activity when cues are associated with movement
-supplementary motor role in selecting and directing internal motor sequences

12

prefrontal cortex functions

-controls cognitive processes so that appropriate movements are selected at correct time
-internal cues-temporal memory (what has just happened, can be related to things or movements), prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral
-external cues-feedback about rewarding properties of stimuli, orbital frontal cortex learning by association, with memory damage use external cues to know how to act
-context clues-orbital frontal, social interactions, detailed sensory info to inferior from temp lobe/affective cortex(amyg)
-autonoetic awareness-self knowledge, continuous

13

motor___movements
premotor___movements
prefrontal____movements___

makes
picks
makes sure, done at right time and place

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left asymmetry

language, encoding memories

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right asymmetry

nonverbal movements, facial expressions, retrieving memories

16

differences in frontal lobe function

performs variety of functions, damage is unlikely to produce impairment to all functions-diff funct in diff sites

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disturbances of motor function

-loss of fine movements, speed, and strength-after primary motor damage, loss of corticospinal projections to motor neurons, lose speed and strength contralaterally
-loss of movement programming-damage to premotor or dorsolateral cortex, serially ordering behavior, supplementary motor cortex-improves rapidly expect in fingers, copying movements
-changes in voluntary gaze-damage to frontal eye fields, hard to focus on specific things
-corollary discharge or reafference-internal neural signal that movement will occur, damage disrupts discharge, voluntary movements require command and signal
-speech-brocas(agrammatism-inability to use verbs, words based on cues), supplementary motor cortex(mute, returns if have unilateral lesion)

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convergent thinking

there is only 1 answer to the question

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divergent thinking

there are multiple answers to the questions, frontal lobe damage-cant do it

20

behavioral spontaneity

spontaneous speech (can't come up with many random words), decreased verbal fluency design fluency general behaviors, L orbitofrontal region, some have difficulty with doodles

21

symptoms of frontal lobe lesions

increased perseveration, inability to make strategy(worse when doing new thing)-,
loss of response inhibition(wisconsin card sorting task, stroop test)-cant change responses, flexibility in behavior broken
risk taking(iowa gambling task)-appears after damage to orbitofrontal cortex, cant follow instructions
self regulation decifits-loss of autonoetic awareness
loss of associative learning-inability to select from competing responses/learn from experience
impaired social and sexual behaviors-phineas gage

22

poor temporal memory

animal experiments show that frontal lobe plays role in temporal memory
area 46-provide internal representation of spatial info, delayed response test
medial regions-object recognition
dorsolateral cortex plays role in monitoring self generated responses
in humans-recency memory(order in which things have occured), prefrontal cortex

23

changes in sexual and social behavior

pseudodepression/psychopathy, orbitofrontal lesions-abnormal sex behavior loss of cells that code facial expressions, dorsolateral reduce interest in sex,

24

pseudodepression

change from involved and outgoing to quiet and remote after frontal lobe damage, L frontal lobe, loss of initiative, interest in sex, quiet

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pseudopsychopathy

quiet polite strict to outspoken brash disrespectful, lesion to R frontal lobe, immature, no social graces, promiscuity

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spatial deficit in frontal lobe?

to understand dorsolateral function must look at relation to posterior parietal, which has role in guiding visuomotor movements in space

27

frontal facial area damage symptoms

sensory and motor functions of face preserved after damage, pre and postcentral gyrus contralateral to lesion, in L-loss of verbal fluency, in R-loss of design fluency

28

schizophrenia

abnormality in mesocortical dopaminergic projection, decrease in blood flow to frontal lobes and atrophy

29

parkinson's disease

loss of dopamine cells in the substantia nigra that project to prefrontal cortex, lack facial expressions, spatial memory, delayed response

30

korsakoff's

alcohol induced damage to the dorsomedial thalamus and deficiency in frontal lobe catecholamines, metabolic disorder of CNS

31

drug addiction

impulsive behaviors, change in structurs of neurosn in orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal regions