Ch. 16 The Origin & Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes And Protists Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 16 The Origin & Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes And Protists > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 16 The Origin & Evolution of Microbial Life: Prokaryotes And Protists Deck (54):
1

Stromatolites

Rock formed of layered fossilized bacterial mats
- Made Earth aerobic w/ the O2 produced → aerobic life

2

Spontaneous Generation

nonliving things produce life (wrong)

3

Biogenesis

"All life today, including microbes, arises only by the reproduction of pre-existing life"
- Louis Pasteur

4

What did Stanley Miller and Harold Urey do?

Showed that organic molecules could be generated on lifeless Earth from the abundant energy sources and high UV radiation

5

What did Sidney Fox do?

Founded that there are specific enzymes or dilute solution of organic monomer dipped on hot rock/clay → heat vaporizes water → concentrates monomer and bonds

6

“The essential difference between life and non life is replication.” means what?

Nucleic acids that replicate and store genetic info.

7

Ribozymes

an enzymatic RNA molecule that catalyzes chemical reactions

8

RNA World

a hypothetical period in the evolution of life when RNA served as a rudimentary genes and the sole catalytic molecules

9

Why are prokaryotes important?

Essential for decomposing dead organisms and returning vital chemical elements to the environment

10

What are the 2 domains of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archaea

11

What are characteristics of bacteria domain?

RNA sequences are unique / polymerase is small/simple
Introns absent / Antibiotic sensitivity inhibited
Peptidoglycan present
Membrane lipid, carbon chains unbranched

12

What are characteristics of archaea domain?

RNA sequence match eukaryotic / polymerase complex
Introns present in some / antibiotic sensitivity not inhibited
Peptidoglycan absent
Membrane lipids, carbon chains branched

13

Peptidoglycan

A polymer of complex sugars cross linked by short peptides; a material unique to eubacterial cell walls

14

What are the 3 varieties of prokaryotes?

1) cocci
2) bacilli
3) spirilli

15

Autotroph

an organism that makes its own food, thereby sustaining itself w/o eating others (inorganic → organic)

16

Chemoautotroph

an organism that obtains both energy and carbon from inorganic chemicals’ makes its own organic compounds from CO2 w/o using light energy

17

Photoautotroph

An organism that obtains energy from sunlight and carbon from CO2 by photosynthesis

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Heterotrophs

an organism that cannot make its own organic food molecules and must obtain them by consuming other organisms/products; consumer/decomposer in food chain

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Photoheterotrophs

an organism that obtains energy from sunlight and carbon from organic sources

20

Chemoheterotrophs

an organism that obtains energy and carbon from organic molecules

21

Prokaryotic Flagellum

a long surface projection that propels a prokaryotic cell thru its liquid environment; totally different from the flagellum of a eukaryotic cell

22

Pili

short projections on the surface of prokaryotic cells that help prokaryotes attach to other surfaces; specialized sex pili are used in conjugation to hold mating cells together

23

Endospore

a thick-coated, protective cell produced w/in a bacterial cell exposed to harsh conditions

24

Actinomycetes

one of a group of bacteria characterized by a mass of branching cell chains (filaments)

25

Cyanobacteria

Photosynthetic, oxygen producing bacteria, formerly called blue-green algae
- lakes, ponds, tropical oceans

26

Pathogen

A disease causing organism

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Exotoxins

a poisonous protein secreted by eubacteria

28

Endotoxins

a poisonous component of the cell walls of certain bacteria (glycolipids)
- Fever, aches, drop in blood pressure

29

Lyme disease

a debilitating human disease caused by bacteria Borella burgdorferi; characterized by a red rash at the site of tick bite and if not treated heart disease, arthritis, and nervous disorders

30

Koch’s Postulates

a set of criteria used to establish that a particular infectious agent causes a disease

31

What are Koch's Postulates? (4)

1. The same, specific pathogen must be identified in each animal (host) that has the disease.
2. The pathogen must be isolated from a host and grown in a pure culture, one in which no other kinds of cells are present.
3. The original disease must be produced in experimental hosts that are inoculated w/ pathogen from pure culture.
4. The same pathogen must be isolated from experimental hosts after the disease develops in them.

32

What are the 2 processes that allowed for eukaryotes to evolve from prokaryotes?

1) Membrane Infolding
2) Endosymbiosis

33

Membrane Infolding

eukaryote’s endomembrane system developed from the inward folds of the plasma membrane of a prokaryote

34

Endosymbiosis

a process by which the mitochondria and chloroplasts of eukaryotic cells probably evolved, from symbiotic associations b/w small prokaryotic cells living inside larger ones

35

Symbiosis

a close association b/w organisms of 2+ species

36

Protozoan

a protest that lives primarily by ingesting food; a heterotrophic, animal-like protist

37

Flagella

a protist (protozoan) that moves by means of 1+ flagella

38

Amoebas

a type of protist characterized by great flexibility and the presence of pseudopodia

39

Pseudopodia

a temporary extension of a amoeboid cellular functions in moving cells and engulfs food

40

Apicomplexans

one of a group of parasitic protozoans, some of which cause human disease (complex organelles)

41

Ciliates

a type of protozoan that moves be means of a cilia and common in aquatic environments
- 2 types of nuclei…macronucleus and micronuclei

42

Cellular slime molds

a type of protist that has unicellular amoeboid cells and multicellular reproductive bodies in its life cycle

43

Plasmodial slime mold

a type of protist that has amoeboid cells, flagellated cells, and an amoeboid plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle

44

Plasmodium

A single mass of cytoplasm containing many nuclei
- the amoeboid feeding stage in the life cycle of a plasmodial slim mode

45

Algae

One of a great variety of protists, most of which are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic autotrophs w/ chloroplasts containing the pigment chlorophyll a; heterotrophic and multicellular protists closely related to unicellular autotrophs are also regarded as algae

46

Dinoflagellates

a unicellular photosynthetic alga w/ 2 flagella situated in perpendicular grooves in cellulose plates covering the cell

47

Diatoms

a unicellular photosynthetic alga w/ a unique, glassy cell wall containing silica

48

Green Algae

one of a group of photosynthetic protists that includes unicellular, colonial, and multicellular species; plantlike in having biflagellated cells (gametes in colonial/multicellular), chloroplasts w/ chlorophyll a, cellulose cell walls, and starch

49

Brown Algae

One of a group of marine, multicellular, autotrophic protists, the most common and largest type of seaweed

50

Red Algae

one of a group of marine, mostly multicellular, autotrophic protists, which include reed building coralline algae

51

Kelp

A giant brown algae, up to 100 m long, that forms extensive undersea forests

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Alteration of Generation

A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; a characteristic of plants and multicellular green algae

53

Gametophytes

a multicellular haploid form in the life cycle of organisms undergoing alternation of generations; mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into sporophyte generation

54

Sporophyte

the multicellular diploid form in the life cycle of organisms undergoing alternation of generations; results from a union of gametes and meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation