Flashcards in Ch 17-19 Deck (232):
What was the Great Plains once known as?
The great american desert
This helped the US conquer and settle the west more than anything else
What was Americas first big business?
This act established funding for the transcontinental railroad
Pacific Railroad Act
Who signed the Pacific Railroad Act?
Why was the north able to pass the Pacific Railroad Act?
The outbreak of war meant that there were no southern reps in congress
What two companies took on the job of building the transcontinental railroad?
Union Pacific and Central Pacific
Which railroad company started building out east and built west?
Which railroad company started building out west and built eastward?
Where was the starting point of the Union Pacific Company?
Where was the starting point of the Central Pacific Company?
Where did the two railroad companies meet?
Promontory Point, Utah
What railroad company hired Chinese workers?
What mountains did the central pacific railroad company have to cut through?
Where was the biggest railroad boom in the 1860's?
These were people of great importance and influence in the railroad industry. Charles crocket and Leyland Stanford were examples of this.
How much land did magnates get for every 1 mile of track they laid?
10 sq miles
This was Americas first major industry to draw people west
This was the name for a cycle that started when people rushed into an area as soon as they heard of a strike
Boom to bust cycle
This was a cheap and easy to to look for gold though it only scratches the surface by looking in rivers
These new mining techniques were used more as mining was industrialized.
This was a huge load of silver ore found in Nevada
This was the largest strike of the Comstock lode
Who was the Irishmen who stroke the Comstock lode?
Although most Hollywood cowboys are white, in reality half were _____ or _____
Mexican or black
This was the most famous black cowboy
These people influenced american cowboys and taught them how to dress and handle cattle
Who built the first cattle shipping yard?
Joseph G McCoy
Where did McCoy build his shipping yard?
These became popular cattle to use
Why were Texas longhorns good cattle?
Sturdy, strong, could withstand disease like Texas fever
Why did cowboys sing to their Texas longhorns?
To soothe them, so they wouldn't be spooked into stampeding
This invention ended the cowboy way of life
Who invented barbed wire
Where did the majority of the white population live?
Where did the large majority of the Chinese, Japanese, and Natives live?
What were Natives dependent on?
Horse and Buffalo
Why did many African Americans migrate west?
To escape racism and live out the American dream
What act did the African Americans move west under?
This is the name for the African Americans who fled to Kansas, mostly from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas
What was the name for when Exodusters fled to Kansas?
The great Exodust of 1879
What did the great Exodust coincide with?
The end of reconstruction
What was the name given for the African Americans who joined the US army?
Why were buffalo soldiers sent to Texas in 1870?
To protect civilians and fight natives
This granted 160 acres to anyone who would make improvements on the land and live on it for 5 years
Homestead act of 1862
This invention was very helpful because many western areas lacked streams and rivers
Wind powered water pump
Who invented the steel plow?
Why was barbed wire a useful invention?
There was not enough wood around for fences
Why did many homesteaders head back east?
Land too small to be profitable, not enough rainfall; irrigation too expensive
This was the name for houses Mande out of strips of sod
Homes built on the side of hills
Who was famous for his thesis discussing the importance of the west?
Frederick Jackson Turner
This was when brave Natives would sneak up on an enemy, touch them, and escape with their lives. Showed bravery and brought great honor
Who resorted to killing buffalo to protect their interests?
Why did the US Government kill buffalo ?
To control the Native population.
What did the extinction of buffalo force Natives to do?
Give up their nomadic way of life, rely on government, sign treaties, go on reservations
What was the name of the massacre that occurred when Natives killed and stole goods from settlers, resulting in the US army attacking 700 sleeping native men, women, and children
Where did Chivingtons Massacre happen?
San Creek Colorado
Who order the attack on the sleeping Natives?
This was the greatest Native victory against the Us gov
Little Big Horn
What Indian tribe fought in little big horn?
Who led the Souix in the battle of little big horn?
What did sitting bull see before battle that was seen as destiny to have a good victory?
Visions of US soldiers falling from the sky
Who was the US colonel in Little Big Horn?
What sparked the battle of little big horn?
Gold was discovers in the sacred black hills, the us tried to move natives out of area
Where did sitting bull and others eventually flee?
Who led the Nez Pierce tribe on their fight against the US?
Why did the Us try to force the Nez Pierce off of their land?
They wanted the land back after the gold rush
Where did the Nez Pierce try to flee to?
Who was one of the first people to speak out against the treatment of Natives?
Helen Hunt Jackson
What was Helen Jackson's famous book titled?
A century of dishonor
What act attempted to assimilate Natives into the American way of life and laid groundwork for them to become citizens and own land?
Dawes Act of 1887
What did the Dawes act promise natives?
160 acres to families and 80 acres to a single man who would settle and farm the land
Who did the Dawes act take power away from?
This was when leaders encourages Natives to stop dressing like whites, trading with them, and to dance.
What did leaders tell their tribes would happen of they participated in ghost dance?
The great spirit would bring more buffalo and wipe out the whites
What happened as the natives stopped trading with whites?
The government feared an attack, military involved, sitting bull killed
Over 200 men, women, and children gunned down by the US, this was the end of tensions between US and the Great Plains Indians
Massacre of Wounded Knee
What were the names of the four time zones adopted by congress?
Eastern,central, mountain, pacific
This was the new process of making steel, it was created by Englishman Henry Bessemer
The Bessemer process
Who tried to perfect the Bessemer process in the US?
What did the Bessemer process entail?
Took iron air and pumped air into it to make steel
Who was one of the most famous inventors of all time?
What was Thomas Edison's nickname?
The Wizard of Menlo Park
Where was Thomas Edison's lab?
What was Thomas Edison's most famous inventions?
What was the name of Edison's company?
Who financially supported Edison to build power stations around the US?
Who invented the telephone?
Alexander Graham Bell
What was the name of the company Alexander Graham Bell Created?
What type of current did Thomas Edison work with?
Who created the usage of alternate current?
What are the benefits of using alternate current?
Easier, safer, could travel longer distances
Why did the US have such abundant labor during the industrialization era?
How did the government support industry?
Protective tariffs and subsidies
This was the new plan of business organization
This was the type of integration used when one company controlled every step of the process of manufacturing
This was the type of integration when one company absorbed smaller companies and controlled a large percentage of that business
What was the name of Andrew Carnegie's company?
What type of integration did Carnegie use?
What country did Carnegie immigrate from?
What was the name of John D Rockefeller's company?
What type of integration did Rockefeller use?
Horizontal and Vertical
What did Rockefeller's monopolized success lead to?
Anti monopoly laws
Who was the most prominent figure in financing?
Who did Carnegie get financing from?
What steel company did JP Morgan create? Hint: it was the first billion dollar company.
Where was the most industrial grow concentrated?
What were rich businessmen called by those who looked up to them for creating millions of jobs?
Captains of Industry
What was the derogative term that people called rich businessmen?
What was the name of Andrew Carnegie's book that talked about how industrialists should give back?
Gospel of Wealth
What two universities did John D Rockefeller establish?
University of Chicago, Rockefeller University
Why did manufacturers face few legal problems?
Rivals (southern planters) had lost political power in the civil war
What was the difference between European railroads and American railroads?
European railroads were built in between cities and towns while American railroads CREATED cities and towns
What happened to rail construction after civil war?
This railroad construction company bribed politicians to avoid being investigated
What enabled railroads to be built on Native territory?
Massive railroad systems
What were the names of the four great trunk lines?
Baltimore and Ohio
NY Central Railroad
Who was the head of the NY Central Railroad?
What was Vanderbilts nickname?
What trunk line competed with the Eerie Railroad?
Who created the Pennsylvania Railroad?
J Edgar Thomas and Thomas A Scott
Who led the Union Pacific Railroad Company?
General Greenville M Dodge
Who led the Central Pacific Railroad Company?
What happened to construction of the transcontinental railroad during the war?
Who were the main employees of the Union Pacific Company?
Ex soldiers and Irishmen
What was the Union Pacifics biggest disadvantage?
Frequent NA Attacks
What was the Union Pacifics biggest advantage?
It built over flat ground
What helped spread the news of the finishing of the transcontinental railroad?
This speculator laid down parallel lines to force rivals to buy them at inflated costs
What was JP Morgans finance company called?
NY Investment house of JP Morgan and Company
What did JP Morgan think of competition between railroads?
He disliked it
What industry did JP Morgan take control of?
How did Carnegie become rich?
Working his way up the Pennsylvania railroad and investing
What was the name of Carnegie's first steel company?
J Edgar Thomson Steel Works
Who did Carnegie sell Carnegie steel to in 1901?
What was the name of JP Morgans steel company?
What was the name of the company that JP Morgan created by combining Carnegie steel and federal steel?
US Steel corporation
Who drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania?
Edwin L Drake
What was oil nicknamed?
What was the oil industry like at first?
What did John D Rockefeller do to the oil industry?
What did Rockefeller think about competition?
It was wasteful
What was the name of the new plan of business organization created by Standard Oil?
Who was Standard oils attorney?
Samuel TC Dodd
Why did Rockefeller move standard oil to New Jersey?
To take advantage of NJ law saying that companies could purchase other companies
Who was famous for improving the transatlantic cable?
Cyrus W Feild
Who came up with using fridge cars to transport meat, also camps up with the dissemble line which was copied by Henry ford
Gustavus f Swift
Where did the first telephone exchange take place?
New Haven Connecticut
Where did Thomas Edison build the first modern research lab ?
Menlo Park NJ
What power station did Edison build in ny?
Pearl street power station
What was the name of the first advertising agency?
N.W Ayer and Son
Who started the mail order trend?
Aaron Montgomery Ward
What was the average working women?
Young and single
Until she did women work?
Who got a provision in the California Constitution forbidding hiring Chinese workers?
This act prohibited Chinese immigration for ten years
Chinese exclusion act
Who united several labor unions into one?
William H Sylvis
What was the name of the union formed by Sylvis?
National labor union
Why did the national labor union not survive?
Who founded the knights of labor?
Uriah S Stephens
Who became the new grand master workmen of the knights of labor in 1879?
What did Terence Powderly do about the secrecy of the knights of labor?
He ended it
Who headed the women's department of the knights of labor and investigated women's working conditions?
Leonardo M Barry
Who did the knights of labor exclude?
What did the knights of labor focus on?
Utopian reform, era of peace and harmony
What railroad did the knights win victory over in 1885?
Jay goulds Missouri pacific railroad
What did the hay market riot do to union membership?
Membership decreased dramatically
This was a loose alliance of craft unions that organized only skilled workers
American federation of labor
Who founded the afl?
What did the afl think of African American and women membership?
They did not allow it
This court case upheld a law limiting the hours of miners because their work was dangerous
Holden V Hardy
This court case stuck down a law limiting bakers hours because bakers had safe jobs
Lochner v New York
This strike paralyzed railroads form West Virginia to California, resulted in the deaths of over 100 workers, and required federal troops to suppress it.m
The great railroad strike
Police shot and killed two workers at this strike, it triggered the hay market riot
McCormick harvester strike
How did the haymaket protest turn deadly?
The police ordered the crowd to disperse and someone threw a dynamite bomb, police fired at the crowd
What war the name of Carnegie's business partner?
Henry Clay Frick
What angered workers, triggering the homestead strike?
Carnegie and Frick cut wages at the homestead steel plant
Who shot and stabbed Henry Clay Frick?
Was Berkman a striker?
What port did immigrants primarily enter the us by?
Where did the old immigrants primarily come from?
Northern and Western Europe ex . Germans and Ireland
Where did the new immigrants primarily come from?
Southern and Eastern Europe ex. Italy, Greece,
What religion were many of the new immigrants?
Catholic and Jewish
What attracted immigrants to the US?
Farmland, industry (jobs) , democracy
Now were big cities able to absorb new immigrants?
Skyscrapers meant cities were growing upward
Where did the middle class move to as immigrants moved into the cities?
What invention sparked the movement of the middle class to the suburbs?
These were big apartments that housed multiple immigrant families
Hat style of tenement was the most popular?
What was the #1 cause of death during this era?
Who exposed people to the horrid living conditions families lived in?
What was the name of Jacob Riis's book?
How the other half lives
This person was famous for documenting child labor through photography
These people sold newspaper on the street
Where were children very often employed?
What English social philosopher was famous for his theory of social Darwinism?
What did the theory of social Darwinism entail?
The strongest In a business would survive and the weak would fail
What novelist was well known for his characters that rose from rags to riches. His books gave hope that you could also move up society,
This was one of the most powerful of the political bosses
William "boss" tweed
This was a Democratic Party organization that dominated politics
Cronies of Tammany hall
How did William Tweed fall from power
What political cartoonist helped largely in part to end tweeds reign of power?
This famous court case ruled that separate but equal schools and train cars were legal
Please vs ferguson
What court case overturned please v ferguson in 1950's
Brown vs board of education
What ex slave was famous for establishing Tuskegee university and for coming up with the Atlanta compromise
Booker t Washington
What did the Atlanta comprises entail
African Americans should not demand equality and change, but should be patient and focus on economic gains
This African American stressed that blacks should fight for equality. He was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard. He also confounded the NAACP.
This was a settlement house that helped immigrants adjust to life in America
Who founded Hull House?
This religious movement focused on improving things in the cities
Social gospel Movement
Name for people who tried to end corruption
This law attempted to regulate morals
Who led the women's suffrage association?
Susan B Anthony
These Chicago architects wanted to rebuild Chicago after the great fire
John root and Louis h Sullivan
Who designed the dumbbell tenement
James E Hare
This was established to relieve overcrowding in the east
Industrial relocation office
Owners did the industrial relocation office open a port that attracted Russian jews?
This was a Midwestern anti catholic group that weaned to limit immigration
American protective association
What were the most important institutions of immigrant life ?
School and church
This set the tone for the era with strict dress, manners, and sex behavior standards
Code of Victorian morality
This women's group advocated no alcohol
Women's Christian temperance union
Who was the president of the WCTU
Francis E Willard
This society was formed by Anthony com stock and supervised public morality
Society for the suppression of vice
What was the first organized baseball team?
Cincinnati red stockings
These were the most popular textbooks used widely throughout the nation
McGuffeys eclectic readers
In these cases, the court ruled that the 14 amendment disallowed state from discriminating because of race, but private institutions could
The civil rights cases , 1883
This court case approved the creation of separate schools for whites even if there were no comparable schools for POC
Cumming V County Board of Education
This land grant gave large sectors of land for colleges to teach agriculture and mechanic arts
Moral land grant act of 1862
What university opened the first separate grad school