Ch 17-19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 17-19 Deck (232):
0

What was the Great Plains once known as?

The great american desert

1

This helped the US conquer and settle the west more than anything else

Transcontinental railroad

2

What was Americas first big business?

Railroads

3

This act established funding for the transcontinental railroad

Pacific Railroad Act

4

Who signed the Pacific Railroad Act?

Lincoln

5

Why was the north able to pass the Pacific Railroad Act?

The outbreak of war meant that there were no southern reps in congress

6

What two companies took on the job of building the transcontinental railroad?

Union Pacific and Central Pacific

7

Which railroad company started building out east and built west?

Union Pacific

8

Which railroad company started building out west and built eastward?

Central pacific

9

Where was the starting point of the Union Pacific Company?

Omaha Nebraska

10

Where was the starting point of the Central Pacific Company?

Sacramento, California

11

Where did the two railroad companies meet?

Promontory Point, Utah

12

What railroad company hired Chinese workers?

Central Pacific

13

What mountains did the central pacific railroad company have to cut through?

Sierra Nevadas

14

Where was the biggest railroad boom in the 1860's?

Midwest

15

These were people of great importance and influence in the railroad industry. Charles crocket and Leyland Stanford were examples of this.

Railroad magnates

16

How much land did magnates get for every 1 mile of track they laid?

10 sq miles

17

This was Americas first major industry to draw people west

Mining

18

This was the name for a cycle that started when people rushed into an area as soon as they heard of a strike

Boom to bust cycle

19

This was a cheap and easy to to look for gold though it only scratches the surface by looking in rivers

Plaquer mining

20

These new mining techniques were used more as mining was industrialized.

Hydrolic mining

21

This was a huge load of silver ore found in Nevada

Comstock lode

22

This was the largest strike of the Comstock lode

Big bonanza

23

Who was the Irishmen who stroke the Comstock lode?

John Mackey

24

Although most Hollywood cowboys are white, in reality half were _____ or _____

Mexican or black

25

This was the most famous black cowboy

Nat love

26

These people influenced american cowboys and taught them how to dress and handle cattle

Mexican vaqueros

27

Who built the first cattle shipping yard?

Joseph G McCoy

28

Where did McCoy build his shipping yard?

Abilene Kansas

29

These became popular cattle to use

Texas longhorns

30

Why were Texas longhorns good cattle?

Sturdy, strong, could withstand disease like Texas fever

31

Why did cowboys sing to their Texas longhorns?

To soothe them, so they wouldn't be spooked into stampeding

32

This invention ended the cowboy way of life

Barbed wire

33

Who invented barbed wire

Joseph Glidden

34

Where did the majority of the white population live?

North

35

Where did the large majority of the Chinese, Japanese, and Natives live?

West

36

What were Natives dependent on?

Horse and Buffalo

37

Why did many African Americans migrate west?

To escape racism and live out the American dream

38

What act did the African Americans move west under?

Homestead act

39

This is the name for the African Americans who fled to Kansas, mostly from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas

Exodusters

40

What was the name for when Exodusters fled to Kansas?

The great Exodust of 1879

41

What did the great Exodust coincide with?

The end of reconstruction

42

What was the name given for the African Americans who joined the US army?

Buffalo soldiers

43

Why were buffalo soldiers sent to Texas in 1870?

To protect civilians and fight natives

44

This granted 160 acres to anyone who would make improvements on the land and live on it for 5 years

Homestead act of 1862

45

This invention was very helpful because many western areas lacked streams and rivers

Wind powered water pump

46

Who invented the steel plow?

John Deer

47

Why was barbed wire a useful invention?

There was not enough wood around for fences

48

Why did many homesteaders head back east?

Land too small to be profitable, not enough rainfall; irrigation too expensive

49

This was the name for houses Mande out of strips of sod

Soddies

50

Homes built on the side of hills

Dugouts

51

Who was famous for his thesis discussing the importance of the west?

Frederick Jackson Turner

52

This was when brave Natives would sneak up on an enemy, touch them, and escape with their lives. Showed bravery and brought great honor

Counting Coup

53

Who resorted to killing buffalo to protect their interests?

Train companies

54

Why did the US Government kill buffalo ?

To control the Native population.

55

What did the extinction of buffalo force Natives to do?

Give up their nomadic way of life, rely on government, sign treaties, go on reservations

56

What was the name of the massacre that occurred when Natives killed and stole goods from settlers, resulting in the US army attacking 700 sleeping native men, women, and children

Chivingtons Massacre

57

Where did Chivingtons Massacre happen?

San Creek Colorado

58

Who order the attack on the sleeping Natives?

Colonel Chivington

59

This was the greatest Native victory against the Us gov

Little Big Horn

60

What Indian tribe fought in little big horn?

Souix

61

Who led the Souix in the battle of little big horn?

Sitting bull

62

What did sitting bull see before battle that was seen as destiny to have a good victory?

Visions of US soldiers falling from the sky

63

Who was the US colonel in Little Big Horn?

George Custer

64

What sparked the battle of little big horn?

Gold was discovers in the sacred black hills, the us tried to move natives out of area

65

Where did sitting bull and others eventually flee?

Canada

66

Who led the Nez Pierce tribe on their fight against the US?

Chief Joseph

67

Why did the Us try to force the Nez Pierce off of their land?

They wanted the land back after the gold rush

68

Where did the Nez Pierce try to flee to?

Canada

69

Who was one of the first people to speak out against the treatment of Natives?

Helen Hunt Jackson

70

What was Helen Jackson's famous book titled?

A century of dishonor

71

What act attempted to assimilate Natives into the American way of life and laid groundwork for them to become citizens and own land?

Dawes Act of 1887

72

What did the Dawes act promise natives?

160 acres to families and 80 acres to a single man who would settle and farm the land

73

Who did the Dawes act take power away from?

The chiefs

74

This was when leaders encourages Natives to stop dressing like whites, trading with them, and to dance.

Ghost dance

75

What did leaders tell their tribes would happen of they participated in ghost dance?

The great spirit would bring more buffalo and wipe out the whites

76

What happened as the natives stopped trading with whites?

The government feared an attack, military involved, sitting bull killed

77

Over 200 men, women, and children gunned down by the US, this was the end of tensions between US and the Great Plains Indians

Massacre of Wounded Knee

78

What were the names of the four time zones adopted by congress?

Eastern,central, mountain, pacific

79

This was the new process of making steel, it was created by Englishman Henry Bessemer

The Bessemer process

80

Who tried to perfect the Bessemer process in the US?

William Relly

81

What did the Bessemer process entail?

Took iron air and pumped air into it to make steel

82

Who was one of the most famous inventors of all time?

Thomas Edison

83

What was Thomas Edison's nickname?

The Wizard of Menlo Park

84

Where was Thomas Edison's lab?

New Jersey

85

What was Thomas Edison's most famous inventions?

Lightbulb

86

What was the name of Edison's company?

General Electric

87

Who financially supported Edison to build power stations around the US?

JP Morgan

88

Who invented the telephone?

Alexander Graham Bell

89

What was the name of the company Alexander Graham Bell Created?

AT&T

90

What type of current did Thomas Edison work with?

Direct current

91

Who created the usage of alternate current?

George Westinghouse

92

What are the benefits of using alternate current?

Easier, safer, could travel longer distances

93

Why did the US have such abundant labor during the industrialization era?

Immigrants

94

How did the government support industry?

Protective tariffs and subsidies

95

This was the new plan of business organization

The trust

96

This was the type of integration used when one company controlled every step of the process of manufacturing

Vertical integration

97

This was the type of integration when one company absorbed smaller companies and controlled a large percentage of that business

Horizontal integration

98

What was the name of Andrew Carnegie's company?

Carnegie Steel

99

What type of integration did Carnegie use?

Vertical

100

What country did Carnegie immigrate from?

Scotland

101

What was the name of John D Rockefeller's company?

Standard Oil

102

What type of integration did Rockefeller use?

Horizontal and Vertical

103

What did Rockefeller's monopolized success lead to?

Anti monopoly laws

104

Who was the most prominent figure in financing?

JP Morgan

105

Who did Carnegie get financing from?

JP Morgan

106

What steel company did JP Morgan create? Hint: it was the first billion dollar company.

US Steel

107

Where was the most industrial grow concentrated?

Northeast

108

What were rich businessmen called by those who looked up to them for creating millions of jobs?

Captains of Industry

109

What was the derogative term that people called rich businessmen?

Robber barrens

110

What was the name of Andrew Carnegie's book that talked about how industrialists should give back?

Gospel of Wealth

111

What two universities did John D Rockefeller establish?

University of Chicago, Rockefeller University

112

Why did manufacturers face few legal problems?

Rivals (southern planters) had lost political power in the civil war

113

What was the difference between European railroads and American railroads?

European railroads were built in between cities and towns while American railroads CREATED cities and towns

114

What happened to rail construction after civil war?

Dramatic increase

115

This railroad construction company bribed politicians to avoid being investigated

Credit Mobulier

116

What enabled railroads to be built on Native territory?

Grants

117

Massive railroad systems

Trunk lines

118

What were the names of the four great trunk lines?

Baltimore and Ohio
Eerie Railroad
NY Central Railroad
Pennsylvania Railroad

119

Who was the head of the NY Central Railroad?

Cornelius Vanderbilt

120

What was Vanderbilts nickname?

The commodore

121

What trunk line competed with the Eerie Railroad?

NY Central

122

Who created the Pennsylvania Railroad?

J Edgar Thomas and Thomas A Scott

123

Who led the Union Pacific Railroad Company?

General Greenville M Dodge

124

Who led the Central Pacific Railroad Company?

Charles Crocker

125

What happened to construction of the transcontinental railroad during the war?

It lagged

126

Who were the main employees of the Union Pacific Company?

Ex soldiers and Irishmen

127

What was the Union Pacifics biggest disadvantage?

Frequent NA Attacks

128

What was the Union Pacifics biggest advantage?

It built over flat ground

129

What helped spread the news of the finishing of the transcontinental railroad?

Telegraph

130

This speculator laid down parallel lines to force rivals to buy them at inflated costs

Jay Gould

131

What was JP Morgans finance company called?

NY Investment house of JP Morgan and Company

132

What did JP Morgan think of competition between railroads?

He disliked it

133

What industry did JP Morgan take control of?

Railroads

134

How did Carnegie become rich?

Working his way up the Pennsylvania railroad and investing

135

What was the name of Carnegie's first steel company?

J Edgar Thomson Steel Works

136

Who did Carnegie sell Carnegie steel to in 1901?

JP Morgan

137

What was the name of JP Morgans steel company?

Federal steel

138

What was the name of the company that JP Morgan created by combining Carnegie steel and federal steel?

US Steel corporation

139

Who drilled the first oil well in Pennsylvania?

Edwin L Drake

140

What was oil nicknamed?

Black gold

141

What was the oil industry like at first?

Chaotic

142

What did John D Rockefeller do to the oil industry?

Imposed order

143

What did Rockefeller think about competition?

It was wasteful

144

What was the name of the new plan of business organization created by Standard Oil?

The trust

145

Who was Standard oils attorney?

Samuel TC Dodd

146

Why did Rockefeller move standard oil to New Jersey?

To take advantage of NJ law saying that companies could purchase other companies

147

Who was famous for improving the transatlantic cable?

Cyrus W Feild

148

Who came up with using fridge cars to transport meat, also camps up with the dissemble line which was copied by Henry ford

Gustavus f Swift

149

Where did the first telephone exchange take place?

New Haven Connecticut

150

Where did Thomas Edison build the first modern research lab ?

Menlo Park NJ

151

What power station did Edison build in ny?

Pearl street power station

152

What was the name of the first advertising agency?

N.W Ayer and Son

153

Who started the mail order trend?

Aaron Montgomery Ward

154

What was the average working women?

Young and single

155

Until she did women work?

Marriage

156

Who got a provision in the California Constitution forbidding hiring Chinese workers?

Workingmens party

157

This act prohibited Chinese immigration for ten years

Chinese exclusion act

158

Who united several labor unions into one?

William H Sylvis

159

What was the name of the union formed by Sylvis?

National labor union

160

Why did the national labor union not survive?

Sylvis dies

161

Who founded the knights of labor?

Uriah S Stephens

162

Who became the new grand master workmen of the knights of labor in 1879?

Terence Powderly

163

What did Terence Powderly do about the secrecy of the knights of labor?

He ended it

164

Who headed the women's department of the knights of labor and investigated women's working conditions?

Leonardo M Barry

165

Who did the knights of labor exclude?

Non producers

166

What did the knights of labor focus on?

Utopian reform, era of peace and harmony

167

What railroad did the knights win victory over in 1885?

Jay goulds Missouri pacific railroad

168

What did the hay market riot do to union membership?

Membership decreased dramatically

169

This was a loose alliance of craft unions that organized only skilled workers

American federation of labor

170

Who founded the afl?

Samuel Gompers

171

What did the afl think of African American and women membership?

They did not allow it

172

This court case upheld a law limiting the hours of miners because their work was dangerous

Holden V Hardy

173

This court case stuck down a law limiting bakers hours because bakers had safe jobs

Lochner v New York

174

This strike paralyzed railroads form West Virginia to California, resulted in the deaths of over 100 workers, and required federal troops to suppress it.m

The great railroad strike

175

Police shot and killed two workers at this strike, it triggered the hay market riot

McCormick harvester strike

176

How did the haymaket protest turn deadly?

The police ordered the crowd to disperse and someone threw a dynamite bomb, police fired at the crowd

177

What war the name of Carnegie's business partner?

Henry Clay Frick

178

What angered workers, triggering the homestead strike?

Carnegie and Frick cut wages at the homestead steel plant

179

Who shot and stabbed Henry Clay Frick?

Alexander Berkman

180

Was Berkman a striker?

No

181

What port did immigrants primarily enter the us by?

Ellis island

182

Where did the old immigrants primarily come from?

Northern and Western Europe ex . Germans and Ireland

183

Where did the new immigrants primarily come from?

Southern and Eastern Europe ex. Italy, Greece,

184

What religion were many of the new immigrants?

Catholic and Jewish

185

What attracted immigrants to the US?

Farmland, industry (jobs) , democracy

186

Now were big cities able to absorb new immigrants?

Skyscrapers meant cities were growing upward

187

Where did the middle class move to as immigrants moved into the cities?

Suburbs

188

What invention sparked the movement of the middle class to the suburbs?

Street car

189

These were big apartments that housed multiple immigrant families

Tenements

190

Hat style of tenement was the most popular?

Dumbbell tenement

191

What was the #1 cause of death during this era?

Terberculosis

192

Who exposed people to the horrid living conditions families lived in?

Jacob Riis

193

What was the name of Jacob Riis's book?

How the other half lives

194

This person was famous for documenting child labor through photography

Lewis Hines

195

These people sold newspaper on the street

Newsies

196

Where were children very often employed?

Textile mills

197

What English social philosopher was famous for his theory of social Darwinism?

Harbors Spencer

198

What did the theory of social Darwinism entail?

The strongest In a business would survive and the weak would fail

199

What novelist was well known for his characters that rose from rags to riches. His books gave hope that you could also move up society,

Horatio Alger

200

This was one of the most powerful of the political bosses

William "boss" tweed

201

This was a Democratic Party organization that dominated politics

Cronies of Tammany hall

202

How did William Tweed fall from power

Corruption charges

203

What political cartoonist helped largely in part to end tweeds reign of power?

Thomas Nast

204

This famous court case ruled that separate but equal schools and train cars were legal

Please vs ferguson

205

What court case overturned please v ferguson in 1950's

Brown vs board of education

206

What ex slave was famous for establishing Tuskegee university and for coming up with the Atlanta compromise

Booker t Washington

207

What did the Atlanta comprises entail

African Americans should not demand equality and change, but should be patient and focus on economic gains

208

This African American stressed that blacks should fight for equality. He was the first African American to earn a doctorate from Harvard. He also confounded the NAACP.

W.E.B Dubois

209

This was a settlement house that helped immigrants adjust to life in America

Hull house

210

Who founded Hull House?

Jane Adams

211

This religious movement focused on improving things in the cities

Social gospel Movement

212

Name for people who tried to end corruption

Mugwumps

213

This law attempted to regulate morals

Comstock law

214

Who led the women's suffrage association?

Susan B Anthony

215

These Chicago architects wanted to rebuild Chicago after the great fire

John root and Louis h Sullivan

216

Who designed the dumbbell tenement

James E Hare

217

This was established to relieve overcrowding in the east

Industrial relocation office

218

Owners did the industrial relocation office open a port that attracted Russian jews?

Galveston Texas

219

This was a Midwestern anti catholic group that weaned to limit immigration

American protective association

220

What were the most important institutions of immigrant life ?

School and church

221

This set the tone for the era with strict dress, manners, and sex behavior standards

Code of Victorian morality

222

This women's group advocated no alcohol

Women's Christian temperance union

223

Who was the president of the WCTU

Francis E Willard

224

This society was formed by Anthony com stock and supervised public morality

Society for the suppression of vice

225

What was the first organized baseball team?

Cincinnati red stockings

226

These were the most popular textbooks used widely throughout the nation

McGuffeys eclectic readers

227

In these cases, the court ruled that the 14 amendment disallowed state from discriminating because of race, but private institutions could

The civil rights cases , 1883

228

This court case approved the creation of separate schools for whites even if there were no comparable schools for POC

Cumming V County Board of Education

229

This land grant gave large sectors of land for colleges to teach agriculture and mechanic arts

Moral land grant act of 1862

230

What university opened the first separate grad school

John Hopkins

231

This study by W.E.B Dubois was the first study of the effect of urban life on blacks

The philedalphia negro