Ch 17. Respiratory, Cardiovascular, And Excretory Systems Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Ch 17. Respiratory, Cardiovascular, And Excretory Systems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 17. Respiratory, Cardiovascular, And Excretory Systems Deck (41):
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Passive smoker

Non smoker in environment high in ETS (environmental tobacco smoke). Second hand smoker

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ETS

Contains carbon monoxide 5x more than in smoke inhaled by active smoker. Tar is in full concentration

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Diaphragm

Done shaped muscle. Flattens when contracted and causes negative pressure inside chest to suck in air. When relaxed, chest volume goes down and forces air out

3

Inhalation

Active

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Exhalation

Passive except during exercise

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Speech volume

Amount of air forces passed vocal cords

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Speech pitch

Muscle that controls length of vocal cords

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Speech sound

Shape of mouth, lips, tongue, and position of teeth

8

Effects of smoke on speech

Causes scar tissue in larynx, making them sound hoarse

9

Alveoli

300 million alveoli. Approx size of tennis court (160m2)

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Smoking effects on alveoli

Fills them with tar causing shortness of breath

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Gas exchange

By simple diffusion

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Surfactant

Enable exchange and reduces friction

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Smoking effects on surfactant

Negatively effects composition and causes friction

14

Hemoglobin

Resp pigment that acquires and transports oxygen. 4 protein chains each with single iron atom to bind to o2. Brownish when deox, bright red when ox. Each RBC has 250 mil hemo and can carry 1 bil o2

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Smoke effects on hemoglobin

CO2 binds 200x better to hemoglobin than oxygen

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Smoke particles

Tiny bits of partially burned tobacco.

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Bronchitis

Smoke particles are too small to trigger cough settle in upper resp tract and get trapped in mucus. Swept up by cilia. Smoking increases mucus production and damages cilia lining

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Cilia

Tiny hairs

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Asthma

Tiniest smoke particles are drawn into alveoli where there are no cilia and sit for long periods of time, causing fluid accumulation and in turn asthma

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Emphysema

Scar tissue on lung. Alveoli sacs merge, surface area decreases, Lungs are less elastic and more dead air is not exhaled, increasing chest size (barrel chest). Permanent and irreversible

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Lung cancer

Many components of smoke are carcinogens

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Carcinogens

Chemicals known to cause mutations

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Blood

5L (11 pints).

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Clotting process

Vessels constrict, sticky platelets attach to damaged tissue ends, and chemical signals are sent initiating clotting cascade.

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Fibrin

Protein that forms clot

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Smoking effects on clotting

Increases stickiness of platelets and promotes production of fibrinogen

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SA node

Sinoatrial node. Controls heart rate

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Smoking effects on heart

Nicotine speeds heart rate

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Blood vessels

100,000 miles of capillaries. No living cell is more than 0.1 mm away from one (thickness of a sheet of paper)

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Cardiovascular disease

Heart or vessel damage.

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Nicotine and cardiovascular disease

Increases LDL production (bad cholesterol) and deceases HDL production (good cholesterol), increasing risk of atherosclerosis

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Nicotine

Toxic. Small doses interact with brain by releasing adrenaline and endorphins making it addictive

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Kidneys

Packed with nephrons. Filter 1,000L blood in 24 hrs.

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Nephrons

Functional parts of kidneys. Dense network of looped tubules. 1,250,000 per kidney.

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Filtration

First step in processing waste. Plasma in blood is forced by blood pressure through tiny holes in capillaries into upstream end of nephron. Filter allows water and small molecules past and holds proteins. Now filtrate enters interior of nephron

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Reabsorption

Second step in processing waste. Reabsorbs across walls of nephron. Gets valuable substances out if filtrate (sugars, amino acids, and water). Water flows out of nephron into kidney on descending loop. Salt is actively secreted into kidney on ascending loop

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Secretion

Third step in processing waste. Low concentration of toxins in plasma are secreted into collection duct at far end of nephron. Filtrate passes by salty interior and lets more water go into kidney tissue

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Excretion

Fourth and final step in processing waste. Remaining concentrated fluid (urine) leaves nephron and flows to bladder

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Micturition

Release of urine from bladder

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Smoking and kidney function

Damages bladder and filtering capacity of kidneys