Flashcards in Ch 17. Respiratory, Cardiovascular, And Excretory Systems Deck (41):
Non smoker in environment high in ETS (environmental tobacco smoke). Second hand smoker
Contains carbon monoxide 5x more than in smoke inhaled by active smoker. Tar is in full concentration
Done shaped muscle. Flattens when contracted and causes negative pressure inside chest to suck in air. When relaxed, chest volume goes down and forces air out
Passive except during exercise
Amount of air forces passed vocal cords
Muscle that controls length of vocal cords
Shape of mouth, lips, tongue, and position of teeth
Effects of smoke on speech
Causes scar tissue in larynx, making them sound hoarse
300 million alveoli. Approx size of tennis court (160m2)
Smoking effects on alveoli
Fills them with tar causing shortness of breath
By simple diffusion
Enable exchange and reduces friction
Smoking effects on surfactant
Negatively effects composition and causes friction
Resp pigment that acquires and transports oxygen. 4 protein chains each with single iron atom to bind to o2. Brownish when deox, bright red when ox. Each RBC has 250 mil hemo and can carry 1 bil o2
Smoke effects on hemoglobin
CO2 binds 200x better to hemoglobin than oxygen
Tiny bits of partially burned tobacco.
Smoke particles are too small to trigger cough settle in upper resp tract and get trapped in mucus. Swept up by cilia. Smoking increases mucus production and damages cilia lining
Tiniest smoke particles are drawn into alveoli where there are no cilia and sit for long periods of time, causing fluid accumulation and in turn asthma
Scar tissue on lung. Alveoli sacs merge, surface area decreases, Lungs are less elastic and more dead air is not exhaled, increasing chest size (barrel chest). Permanent and irreversible
Many components of smoke are carcinogens
Chemicals known to cause mutations
5L (11 pints).
Vessels constrict, sticky platelets attach to damaged tissue ends, and chemical signals are sent initiating clotting cascade.
Protein that forms clot
Smoking effects on clotting
Increases stickiness of platelets and promotes production of fibrinogen
Sinoatrial node. Controls heart rate
Smoking effects on heart
Nicotine speeds heart rate
100,000 miles of capillaries. No living cell is more than 0.1 mm away from one (thickness of a sheet of paper)
Heart or vessel damage.
Nicotine and cardiovascular disease
Increases LDL production (bad cholesterol) and deceases HDL production (good cholesterol), increasing risk of atherosclerosis
Toxic. Small doses interact with brain by releasing adrenaline and endorphins making it addictive
Packed with nephrons. Filter 1,000L blood in 24 hrs.
Functional parts of kidneys. Dense network of looped tubules. 1,250,000 per kidney.
First step in processing waste. Plasma in blood is forced by blood pressure through tiny holes in capillaries into upstream end of nephron. Filter allows water and small molecules past and holds proteins. Now filtrate enters interior of nephron
Second step in processing waste. Reabsorbs across walls of nephron. Gets valuable substances out if filtrate (sugars, amino acids, and water). Water flows out of nephron into kidney on descending loop. Salt is actively secreted into kidney on ascending loop
Third step in processing waste. Low concentration of toxins in plasma are secreted into collection duct at far end of nephron. Filtrate passes by salty interior and lets more water go into kidney tissue
Fourth and final step in processing waste. Remaining concentrated fluid (urine) leaves nephron and flows to bladder
Release of urine from bladder