Ch. 18 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Ch. 18 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 18 Deck (34):
1

biotic factors (example)

living components (deer, human, etc.)

2

levels of organization

biosphere
ecosystem
communities
populations
organisms

3

how organisms escape unsuitable conditions

migration-move, dormancy- enter state of reduced activity

4

tolerance curves

range at which an organism is able to function

5

niche

specific role, or way of life, of a species within its environment

6

generalist (ex)

species with broad niches (opossum)

7

producers (ex)

autotrophs that capture energy and use it to make new organic material (plants)

8

consumers (ex)

obtain food by consuming organic compounds (herbivores,carnivores)

9

net primary productivity

rate at which biomass accumulates
-only energy stored as biomass is available to other organisms

10

interdependence/interconnectedness (example)

all organisms and the living and nonliving parts of the environment (birds and plants)

11

tropic level

indicates the organism's position in a sequence of energy transfers

12

specialist (ex)

species with narrow niches (koala)

13

food web

interrelated food chains in an ecosystem

14

energy transfer

transfer of energy from one organism to another
~ on average 10% of total energy consumed is transfered

15

components of biogeochemical cycles

water cycle, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, phosphorus cycle

16

water cycle

movement of water between various reserviors
-evaporation
-precipitation
-transpiration
-runoff
-groundwater
-percolation

17

carbon cycle

~carbon is produced by cellular respiration, combustion, and decomposition
~carbon is used by photosynthesis

18

nitrogen fixing bacteria

convert N2 to ammonia (so plants can use)

19

nitrogen cycle

N2 in air cant be used by plants
nitrogen fixing bacteria
nitrification
ammonification
denitrification

20

food chain

single pathway of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem that results in energy transfer

21

abiotic factors (examples)

nonliving factors (temp.,light)

22

ammonification

decomposers break down dead organisms and waste. release nitrogen as ammonia

23

denitrification

anaerobic bacteria break down nitrate and release N2 gas back into the atmosphere

24

Phosphorus cycle

-plants absorb P from the soil and animals obtain P
-returned from animals waste or when die and decompose

25

why need nitrogen?

need to make nucleic acids and proteins

26

why need phosphorus?

essential to form teeth, bones, DNA, etc

27

method of fixing nitrogen (bacteria way-what called)

cyanobacteria
rhyzobium (rhizobium)

28

most common (useable) form of nitrogen

NO3-

29

acclimation

organisms can adjust their tolerance curve to abiotic factors (not adaptation)

30

nitrification

bacteria use ammonia to produce nitrates (can be used by plants)

31

conformers

change as environment changes (dont regulate internal environment)
Cold blooded

32

importance of decomposers

-feed on dead animals and waste
-break down molecules and return to soil (recycle nutrients)

33

regulators

dont change with environment

34

why organisms need carbon?

to make carbohydrates