Ch 18 & 19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 18 & 19 Deck (51)
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1

Strong Acids

HCl
HBr
HI
HNO3
HClO4
H2SO4

2

Weak Acids

HF
HCN
HNO2
H3PO4
H2CO3
CH3COOH

3

Strong Bases

LiOH
NaOH
KOH
Ba(OH)2
Ca(OH)2

4

Weak Base

NH3

5

Arrhenius Acid

substance that produces H+ in solution

6

Arrhenius Base

substance that produces OH- in solution

7

net ionic equation for Strong Acid/base reaction

H+ + OH- --> H2O

8

Limitation of Arrhenius defition

doesn't recognize role of solvent in ionization of solute

9

Bronsted-Lowry Acid

proton (H+) donor

10

Bronsted-Lowry Base

proton acceptor

11

conjugate acid base pair

differ ONLY in presence or absence of proton

12

3 main groups of acids

binary acids
oxoacids
carboxylic acids (organic acids)

13

binary acid

has H-X structure (HF, HCl, HBr, etc)

14

factors that determine relative strength of binary acids

bond strength
(stronger bond=weaker acid)
Polarity of bond
(more polar=stronger acid)

15

oxoacid

has H-O-Z structure

16

factors that determine relative strength of oxoacids

electronegativity of Z
(more electronegative=stronger acid)
number of O's bonded to Z
(more O's=stronger acid)

17

Carboxylic Acids

R-COOH structure

18

Factors that increase acid strength of organic acids

substituent groups (R)
(CH3COOH

19

amphoteric substance

can act as both an acid and a base (H2O)

20

Kw value & equation

1*10^-14
Kw={H+}[OH-}

21

Acid dissociation constant equation

Ka=[H+][A-]/[HA]

22

strong vs weak acid Ka & pKa

strong acid-larger Ka/smaller pKa
weak acid-smaller Ka/higher pKa

23

types of strong acids

Hydrohalic
Oxoacids

24

types of weak acids

hydrohalic
oxoacids
carboxylic acids

25

types of strong bases

M2O/MOH (M=group 1 metal)
MO/M(OH)2 (M=group 2 metal)

26

types of weak bases

Ammonia
Amines (RNH2)

27

direction of equilibrium

towards weak acid/base side

28

percent ionization equation

[H+]/[HA]

29

Kb equation

Kb=[BH+][OH-]/[B]

30

what salts yield neutral solutions?

salts of strong acid & strong base

31

what salts yield acidic solutions?

salts of strong acid & weak base

32

what salts yield basic solutions?

salts of strong base & weak acid

33

how to determine if salt of a weak acid& weakbase will be acidic or basic

Ka>Kb acidic salt
Kb>Ka basic salt

34

Lewis acid

an atom or molc that is an e- pair acceptor

35

Lewis base

atom or molc that is an e- pair donor

36

bond joining Lewis acid & Lewis base

coordination covalent bond

37

buffer solution

pH changes only slightly when acid/base is added

38

how buffer works

weak acid/base pair
weak acid neutralizes added base
weak base neutralizes added acid

39

Henderson-Hasselbach Equation & use

pH=pKa + log [A-]/[HA] ( [base]/[acid] )
can be used for buffer solutions

40

buffer capacity

amount of acid/base that a buffer can neutralize before its pH changes appreciably

41

pH range for effective buffers

pKa +/- 1

42

indicator

changes color based on pH of solution

43

end point

point in titration when indicator changes color

44

equivalence point

point in titration when moles of added species is stoichiometricly equal to starting moles of other species

45

how acid-base indicators work

acid and base forms of the indicator have different colors

46

acid base indicator pH equation

pH= pKin + log [in]/[Hin]

47

best indicator for strong base/acid combo

bromthymol blue
(pH range of 6-8)
yellow to blue

48

bromcresol green properties

4-6 pH range
yellow to blue

49

solubility

maximum amount of a salt that will dissolve (g/mL or mol/L)

50

Solubility product

Ksp
product of the molar concentrations

51

how does pH affect solubility?

only affects basic salts
the higher the [H+], the more soluble