Ch. 19 Endocrine, Skeletal, And Muscular System Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Ch. 19 Endocrine, Skeletal, And Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 19 Endocrine, Skeletal, And Muscular System Deck (40):
1

Endocrine system

Internal system or regulation and communication involving hormones, the glands that secrete them, and target cells

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Hormones

Chemicals that travel trough blood and act as signals to elicit a response from target cells by:
1. Binding to receptors on target cells surface and trigger response inside cell
2. Diffuse across cell membrane and bind to receptors inside cell for response
Protein hormones
Steroid hormones

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Protein hormones

Bind to receptor on surface and start signal transduction

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Signal transduction

Chain reaction within cell that relays signal from outside cell

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Steroid hormones

Fat soluble and can cross membrane to bind to receptors inside cell
Sex hormones

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Sex hormones

Most involved in anatomical sex differences. Include testosterone and estrogen. Once inside cell, hormone and receptor bind to DNA to enhance or inhibit expression of genes

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Endocrine glands

Group of cells or organs that secrete hormones
Hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, adrenals, gonads, thyroid, parathyroid, pineal, thymus

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Hypothalamus

Located in brain. Regulates body temp, affect hunger, thirst, and reproduction

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Pituitary

Water reabsorption by kidneys, breast milk release and production, uterine contractions, increases tabloid activities, egg and Soren production, bone growth, protein synthesis, and cell division

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Pancreas

Insulin and glucagon, controls blood glucose levels

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Adrenals

Blood glucose levels, increase fat breakdown, suppresses inflammation, ^BG, ^HR, ^resp, and regulates vasodilation, promoted and maintains sex specific characteristics. Secrete epinephrine, estrogen, and testosterone. Secreted a little of each on both sexes

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Gonads

Promotes development of sexual organs
Testes
Ovaries

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Testes

Secrete testosterone, aid in sperm production, hair thickness and distribution, ^muscle mass, voice deepening. Sperm production most efficient at temp lower than body temp

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Ovaries

Produce and secrete estrogen. Regulates menstruation, maturation if eggs, breast development, pregnancy, and menopause

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Thyroid

Increase metabolism, helps lower calcium levels

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Parathyroid

Acts on bones, digestive tract, and kidneys to raise blood calcium levels

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Pineal

Regulates sleep

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Thymus

Helps T cells mature, especially in children

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Skeleton

206 bones. Support, protect, movement, and storage.

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Axial skeleton

Bones of spine and skull

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Appendicular skeleton

Bones if hip, shoulder, and limbs

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Ball and socket joint

3D movement. Hip and shoulder

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Hinge joint

Back and forth movement. Knee and elbow

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Pivot joint

Side to side movement. Head on neck

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Compact bone

Hard outer shell of bone

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Spongy bone

Porous inner bone containing bone marrow

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Osteoblasts

Regenerates bone tissue. Stimulated when blood calcium is high

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Osteoclasts

Breakdown and reabsorption bone tissue. Stimulates when blood calcium is low

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Calcitonin

Lower Ca concentration in blood when levels are high

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Calcium

Must be maintained for blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve impulses, and enzyme activity

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Sexual differences in skeleton

Mandible, temporal bone, frontal bone, and ossa coaxe of pelvis.
Q angle: angle between kneecap and femur, and line between tendon from kneecap to shinbone. Larger in women

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Antagonistic pairs

Muscle is paired with muscle if opposite effect (bicep and tricep)

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muscle fibers

each fiber is single cell. grouped in parallel bundles. within each fiber is a myofibril

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myofibril

parallel threadlike filaments. gives striated characteristic. linear arrangement of sarcomeres.

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sarcomere

unit of contraction. composed of actin and myosin filaments. region between z disks in myofibril

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actin

thin filaments of protein

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myosin

thick filaments of proetin

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sliding filament

actin filaments are attached at z disks and myosin are stationary in between and parallel. ATP causes myosin heads to cock and attach to actin and draw toward center, shortening the sarcomere and causing a contraction

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muscular sex differences

muscle fibers contain testosterone receptors in cytoplasm that stimulate cells to increase mass

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sex differences and athleticism

men have lower body fat, but women use glucose more efficiently and increase endurance