Ch. 19 Fire-Related Emergencies: Incinerators, Oil Burners & Gas Leaks Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 19 Fire-Related Emergencies: Incinerators, Oil Burners & Gas Leaks Deck (79):
1

Natural gas is primarily:

Methane (more than 90%)
- Ethane, up to 5%
- CO and Nitrogen

2

The presence of _____ in natural gas can sometimes be used by FIRE DEPARTMENTS and UTILITY companies to pinpoint the source of persistent "gas odors" that have no apparent source.

Ethane

3

Everyone has "smelled gas". Odorant added at a precise rate, so as little as 1% of gas can be detected. The odorant is generally _____, compounded with sulfides.

Mercaptan

4

As little as _______ of odorant can treat up to _________.

1/4 lb.
1 million cu. ft. of natural gas

5

Vapor density of natural gas

.60

6

Large percentage of total number of FD responses involve incidents in which no fire is present OR fire is within its normal container, may be termed:

Emergency Responses

7

Pipeline leak: FD operations should be:

-EVACUATING endangered area.
-PROTECTING exposed bldgs and EXAMINING for gas seeping into them.
-NO attempts at closing any valves

8

2 kinds of regulators (natural gas)

Newer-spring loaded,
steady rate,
1/4 psi diaphragm.
Older-"dead weight",
column of mercury maintain pressure on diaphragm,
being phased out.
Regulator holds pressure between 2 and 4 psi

9

Regulators inside a building have the vent line piped out through the wall to a:

Peck vent OR fisher vent

10

Steps for gas regulator failure:

Notify utility
Shutoff gas
Search for gas, fire and victims
Vent area

11

Flammable range of natural gas

4 - 14%
(5-15% in hazmat)

12

Markings on radio for intrinsically safe:

Class 1, Division 1 or 2 atmospheres

13

Natural Gas-Curb valves control the gas service into building. As a guide:

Inside services, high pressure-Yes

Outside meters, low pressure-No (O's)

14

Deciding WHEN to vent:

How large a leak
Source of ignition/can you control them
Status of gas/air mixture

15

(Natural gas) Of all decisions to be made, _______ has the most variables.

WHERE to stop the leak-inside or outside

16

Gas emergencies usually involve ______ engine company(s)

At least 1.
enough personnel to stretch hoseline.
long enough to cover ENTIRE building.
Apparatus for most shielding.

17

Gas leaks usually take _________.

Path of least resistance-underground along gas pipe or other underground lines, gas deodorized as it travels, soil filters out odor.

18

Nose can detect _____ of gas in air

1%. desensitized after short time. combustible gas meter (explosimeter), 2 meters preferable.

19

Do's and Don't's of outside leak

DO
-stop leak in low-press. STEEL lines (to save a life!!).
-have dry-chem and water ready if someone enters trench.
DON'T
-touch valves in street.
-EVER attempt to stop leak in plastic pipe.

20

Vapor density for propane and butane

Butane - 2.01
Propane - 1.52

21

Barbecue: Leak of LPG (liquid petroleum gas) near the neck AND accompanying fire

-small fire, if on low-pressure side.
-extinguish by turning off valve OR garden hose.
-isn't done because = lack of knowledge or fear of injury

22

To avoid casualties involving LPG (BLEVE), FF's need:

-working knowledge of LPG properties
-cylinders in which it was shipped
-tactics for dealing with scenarios

23

LPG or propane leaking finds source of ignition after having the opportunity to spread out farther and mix with more air

Vapor-air explosion (or fuel-air explosion)
-MORE devastating than leak that ignites immediately or BLEVE

24

Propane characteristics:

Flammable range = 2.1 - 9.5%
VD = 1.52
Boiling point = -44F

25

Propane pressure at 70 and 100 degrees

70F = 100 psi
100F = 190 psi

26

BLEVE isn't caused by _____ but by ______.

Rise in pressure
Loss of strength due to heat
-steel at 1500F loses HALF its strength

27

How many handlines and stream pattern for LPG cylinder.

Three or four 1 1/2 in. or 1 3/4 in. handlines (within exposed bldg, outside protect structure, cylinder fire)
Initially, straight or narrow fog
-as distance DECREASES, fog gets WIDER so as not to knock over cylinder
*open spaces-extinguish, built-up areas-Isn't recommended*

28

Heating systems account for _____% of all fires

21

29

Modern oil burner consists of:

-oil gun
-firebox

30

Gas leaks are ________ and ________.

Among the most common
POTENTIALLY the most deadly

30

Components of an oil burner are divided into the following ______ systems:

Two

Oil handling and controls

32

Most common oil burner is:

High-pressure gun type

33

Pressures from oil pump in the gun

-100 psi - homes
-300 psi - large installations

34

Oil burner: 2 sources of ignition

Gas pilot light OR
2 high voltage electrodes (5,000 or more volts)

35

In control system, limit control and limit switches are?

Limit control - thermostat (most common)
Limit switches - pressuretrol (steam)(min and max setting) and aquastat (steam and hot water)

36

______ (extremely important to the fire dept) is the preferred means of interrupting the operation of the burner.

Remote control OR emergency switch

37

Stack switch is a _______ switch designed to sense heat in smoke pipe.
It's main purpose is to ____
On newer burners, stack switch may be ______

Bimetallic.
Act as safeguard, keeping oil/air from building up w/no fire present.
Infrared sensor at burner head

38

2 possible oil burner problems

Smoking burner
-turn off emergency switch
-turn off oil tank valve
-Inform owner/written notice
Delayed ignition OR kickback
-ignition doesn't occur, oil vapor cloud ignites at once
-loud thud, similar to explosion
-knock smoke pipe loose OR blow open burner

39

For kickbacks or "explosion in the cellar", and oil burning OUTSIDE the burner:

Handline OR
Extinguisher
-AFFF
-dry chem
-CO2

40

Oil burning INSIDE the firebox after kickback (normal):

Let it burn itself out

41

White Ghost is:

LEAST common problem but MOST dangerous
Cloud of vaporized oil and air heated above flash point AND out of its container
Common during severe cold spells

42

The culprit in roach bombs causing explosions:

Pilot light on stove

43

Roach bombs and ______ are "real recipe for disaster"

Sulfur candles

44

Heavy rolling clouds violently twisting skyward indicate:

Extremely hot smoke
-"black fire"

45

Compactors resemble incinerators, with hopper doors on each floor. Compactors differ from incinerators because:

They aren't designed to hold fire at any time.

46

Smoke coming from a compactor indicates:

Immediate action is needed.
-stretch hose to first floor ABOVE the fire

47

Compactors rooms pose the following hazards (5)

High-voltage equipment
High-pressure hydraulic hoses
Moving rams that can shear off AN ARM if caught in compactor
Falling debris
Exploding bottle and cans

48

The _____ of a compactor fire can be the difference between a routine fire and a rapidly spreading multiple alarm.

Quick identification

49

Battery powered CO detectors

Won't reset quickly
Like human body, absorbs and holds on to CO for a long time
Gel sensor, 24-48 hrs to reset
Sometimes high-dose accumulation won't reset and must be replaced
Life span 5-7
*120v reset quickly*

50

CO alarm levels

Low - 15 ppm over 8 hr day or 30 day time frame
(8 or 30 Depending on when detectors are made)
High - 100 ppm in 90 min or 400 ppm in 15 min

51

Compressed propane shrinks to ________ of its original volume as a gas

1/270th

52

Emergency responses-Working knowledge of how to handle these emergencies is _________.

Vital to efficient performance of duty

53

Natural gas emergencies divided into three basic categories:

Inside leaks (greatest danger).
Outside leaks (next most dangerous).
Leaks resulting from fires

54

Pipeline pressure

350-850 psi

55

City gate stations pressure

60-150 psi

56

Potential for mass disaster (failure of )
Underground vaults
Pressure reduced further

District regulator stations
(FD can't do anything DIRECTLY to solve problem, only notify utility)

57

Low pressure systems
Operating at 1/4 psi
Gas mains are all at 1/4 lb of pressure

Older system

58

Street main at 2.5-60 psi
Gas line going into premises from street has own regulator
Reduces to 1/4 psi

Newer system

59

First priority of report of gas leak should be to:

Notify the utility

60

How strong is the smell?

Strong-potentially serious, leave premises (expect the worse)
Not so obvious-intensity and evac decided by officer in command

61

Combustible gas detector

Indicates concentration of gas, expressed as percentage of LOWER explosive limit (LEL)

62

For faint odors, always check __________. Try to isolate as close to source with __________ and if that isn't possible, next point of control is _________.

Pilot light

Quarter-turn appliance valve
Meyer wing cock

63

At multiple tenant occupancies, master valve called a _________ stops the flow to ALL the tenants.

Service entrance cock

64

Natural gas-Where to vent?

Simple-vent upper areas.
Opening windows-generally sufficient.
PPV-more effective means
*NO smoke ejectors*
Search and vent = 👍🏻

65

Some utilities mix in _____________ to make up difference between supply and demand, called __________.

Liquified petroleum gas
Peak shaving

66

______ is a mixture of several of the hydrocarbon gases, mostly propane, but with quantities of butane and possibly ethane.

LPG

67

A ________ is a particular threat to firefighters, since it often occurs after the arrival of the fire department, unlike most fuel-air explosions.

BLEVE

68

Pressure relief valve on a LPG cylinder keeps pressure inside at around _________.

250 psi

69

LPG cylinder evacuation distance for BLEVE:

150 ft in all directions

70

Lowest floor with smoke will usually have fire on it. FF should make a point of checking ____________.

At least one floor below this level

71

Heavy smoke throughout building with no visible fire indicates ________. Even more apparent if smoke is issuing from ________.

Cellar fire

Chimney

72

Fire in an early state. _____ is the only clue there is a problem.

Odor

73

Smoke/odor of fire
This minimizes damage and generally doesn't affect the security of the apartment. If forcible entry is required, arrange with ____, ____, or _______ for security of apartment.

Fire escape as another view of the structure and it permits forcible entry.

Police, responsible tenant, or building maintenance

74

Trash compactor chute and incinerator shafts are __________________. A fire in ________ isn't necessarily an emergency.

Abnormal, life-threatening conditions

An incinerator

75

Incinerators/compactors
If smoke comes out when the door is opened, you are ______ the blockage. (Blockage not on fire, incinerator/compactor is)

Below

76

Carbon Monoxide
Flu-like symptoms?
Reporting symptoms?
There is no alternative to ____________.

EMS dispatched.
Building evacuated until checked.
Testing with meters.

77

CO Alarm values (battery):
CO acceptable levels:

Low-15 ppm, over 8 HR day or 30 day time frame
High-100 ppm for 90 min, 400 ppm for 15 min

9 ppm for residences, 35 ppm for commercial where no one sleeps

78

CO-If you find defective or leaking appliance, __________________.

Shut it down and continue to monitor
After reading complete, you should begin to vent

79

Extinguishing wood-burning stoves (5)

Shut off air intake
Chimney fire extinguisher
ABC type dry-chem (excessive mess in occupied area)
Plastic bags of dry-chem into top of chimney
Low-volume, water mist nozzle (avoid streams from hose nozzles-crack the flue)