Ch. 19 Human Evolution Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 19 Human Evolution Deck (35):
1

What are the 4 types of primates?

Humans
Apes
Monkeys
Lemurs

2

Arboreal

living in trees
- reflected in human body features

3

What are the 5 characteristics of a primate?

1) Limber + Hip joints
2) 5 Digits on hands + feet (mobility/grasping)
3) Opposable thumbs (sometimes toes too)
4) Great sense of touch (receptors)
5) Eyes on the from of face (depth perception)
- poor peripheral

4

What are the 2 groups of Primates?

Prosimians
Anthropoids

5

Prosimians

"Before Apes
- oldest known and primitive
- came about after dinosaurs
- 35 species including hushbabies, lorries, tasters, and lemurs
- tropical rainforests

6

Antropoids

"Man form"
- humans, apes, monkeys
- larger brain relative to body size mean higher intelligence
- rely more on eyesight than smell
- Old World Moneys and New World Monkeys

7

Old World Moneys

Africa, Eurasia
- no tails, ground dwellers

8

New World Monkeys

South/Central America
- tail, arboreal

9

Apes

Closest living relatives and confined to rainforests in Africa/Eurasia
- forelimbs longer than hind limbs
- vegetarian (some eat insects/small vertebrae)

10

Gibbons

Smallest, lightest, most agile of apes
- southeast asia
- 9 species
- arboreal
- monogolous (1 mate)

11

Orangutan

Live in isolates parts of the world
- largest living arboreal mammal, moving slowly, supported by stock body w/ all 4 limbs
- Borneo and Sumatra
- 1 species

12

Gorilla

Largest of the primates
- Central Africa rain forest
- knuckle walkers, stand upright

13

What are the 4 types of apes?

Gibbons
Orangutan
Gorilla
Chimpanzee

14

Chimpanzee

Knuckle walkers
- behavior resembles humans
- uses tools like humans

15

___ and ___ are more related to humans than any other primate and differs by ___%

Gorillas and Chimps
3%

16

What is wrong with the common misconception that man evolved from apes?

Man and apes have a common ancestry from which we evolved and went to different pathways

17

What is the order of human evolution?

1) Australopithecus
2) Homo Habilis
3) Homo erectus
4) Homo Neanderthal
5) Homo Sapiens

18

Australopithecus

"Southern ape" 4mya
- first hominids
- afarensis, africanus, boisei, robustus
- widespread, 2 legged
- hunter/gatherers
- Took opportunity and disappeared 4 mya

19

Homo Habilis

"Handy man" 2.5 may
- possessed a larger brain (high intelligence)
- gave rise to homo erectus

20

Homo Erectus

"upright man" 1.8 mya - 250,000
- larger brain than predecessors
- regional diversity
- first to use fire, huts, caves
- use animal skins, advanced tools

21

Homo neanderthals

130,000 - 35,000
- archaic homo
- spread out
- short, stocky, muscular
- skilled tool maker and ritualistic

22

Homo Sapians

"Wise man"
- coexisted with homo neanderthals
- multi regional hypothesis or monogenesis hypothesis

23

Multiregional Hypothesis

Races of humankind stem from regional diversity
- similar genetic make up

24

Monogenesis Hypothesis

Modern homo sapiens come from 1 ancient group (all others were evolutionary dead ends)
- uniformity of mitochondrial DNA

25

What are the 3 major milestones in human evolution?

1) Erect stance
2) Enlargement of Brain
3) Prolonged Period of Parental Care

*Culture

26

Erect stance

Remodeling of entire skeleton (hips/arms)
- 2 walking legs

27

Enlargement of Brain

As man evolved, brain grew and higher intelligence achieved

28

Prolonged period of parental care

Care for offspring for long time and have strong bond

29

Culture

Accumulate knowledge, customers, beliefs, arts, and other human products that are socially transmitted over the generations
- made us the dominant force on Earth by defying physical limitations
- alter nature at rate exceeding biological evolution
- adapt/change environment to our needs (help survival but population explosion continues but problems arise)

30

What are the 3 stages of culture?

1) Scavenging, hunting, gathering
2) Agriculture
3) Industrial Revolution

31

Scavenging, hunting, gathering

As tools and cooperative hunting behaviors, we improve and control

32

Agriculture

Grow own food -> abundant reliable food supply
- farming leads to stay in one place
- division of labor and more time for other stuff
- population explosion

33

Industrial Revolution

England 18th century
- small scale hand production -> large scale martin production
- increased demand for suppliers

34

What happened to change?

Change continued to happen but it happened at a rapid rate. Biological changes were slower than cultural changes. And our world became changing so rapidly, we may be threatening our own existence.

35

Hominid

A species on the human branch of the evolutionary tree; a member of the family Hominid (homo-sapiens + ancestors)