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Flashcards in Ch 2 Deck (36):
0

Phrenology

Theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities and our character traits

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Biological psychology

Study that links biological activity and psychological events

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Neuron

Nerve cells, each contain a cell body and branching fibers, building blocks

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Dendrite

Fibers that receive ("listen") info and conduct it toward the cell body

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Axon

Fibers that pass ("speak") messages along to the other neurons or to muscle or glands, sometimes very long

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Myelin sheath

Layer of fatty tissue, insulates the axons of some neurons, helps speed impulses,
linked to multiple sclerosis- myelin sheath deteriorates, slowing communications to muscles

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Action potential

Impulses sent by a neuron when it receives signals from sense receptors stimulated by pressure, heat, or light

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Threshold

Minimum intensity

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Synapse

Junction between the axon tip of sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron

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Neurotransmitters

Chemical messengers, travel across synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron

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Acetylcholine, ACH

A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and triggers muscle contractions

11

Dopamine

Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

12

Serotonin

Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal

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Endorphins

Natural opiates that are released in response to pain and vigorous exercise

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Nervous system

Electrochemical information network

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Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

Links central nervous system with body's sense receptors, muscles, and glands

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Nerves

Electrical cables that hold bundled PNS info carried by axons

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Sensory neurons

Send info from the body's tissues and sensory organs inward to CNS brain and spinal cord which process info

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Motor neurons

Sends instructions out of body's tissues

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Interneurons

Info is processed by internal communications

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Somatic nervous system

Enables voluntary control of skeletal muscles,
Reports to brain current state of skeletal muscles and carry instructions back

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Autonomic nervous system

Controls glands and muscles of internal organs operates on own (autonomously) to influence internal functioning (heart beat, digestion, gland activity)

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sympathetic nervous system

Arouses, accelerates heartbeat, raises blood pressure, slows digestion

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Parasympathetic nervous system

Opposite of sympathetic,
Conserves energy, calms, decreases heart beat, lowers blood pressures

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Reflex

Automatic responses to stimuli

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Lesions

Tissue destruction

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Neural networks

Neurons cluster into these "work groups"

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Endocrine system

Second of body's communication glands

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Hormones

Chemical messengers from endocrine system glands

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Adrenal glands

On top of kidneys to release epinephrine and norepinephrine, surge of energy

31

Pituitary glands

Most influential endocrine gland, a pea sized structure located in core of brain, controlled by hypothalamus

32

EEG

Amplified read out of brain waves

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Pet scan

Positron emission tomography, depicts brain activity by showing each brain areas consumption of chemical fuel

34

MRI

Magnetic resonance imaging, head put I to magnetic field, aligns spinning atoms

35

FMRI

Functional MRI, reveals brains functioning and structure, blood flow, shows brain functions