Flashcards in CH 2 Deck (34):
What are the 4 steps to the scientific method?
2) Detect regularities
3) Generate Hypothesis
4) Observe (to see if hypo is correct)
What is descriptive research?
Methods that are used to observe and describe behavior.
What is reactivity?
Act of observing causes changes in behavior
What is naturalistic observation?
Method of reducing reactivity and external validity by observing in a more natural setting, sometimes even blend in.
What is a case-study?
Focusing on a single case. Problem is the sample size is only 1, low external validity. Used mainly with regards to rare ailments.
What is a survey?
Opposite of a case study, focus on a large group of people.
Risks of surveys?
Selection bias (not a diverse group), external validity
What is external validity?
Extent of which the results of a survey or case-study can be extrapolated to a larger group
Why is hypnosis used?
To aid in memory recovery (from trauma, etc.) However, the memory may be false or misleading
What is a sample?
Representative subset from a larger group. Need to ensure no bias
What are some tests to assess individuals?
Achievement tests, Aptitude tests, Personality tests
How are statistics used in psychology?
To summarize the data and draw conclusions
What is the mean?
The average (susceptible to extreme values)
What is the median?
Middle number (more effective when extreme values exist)
What is the mode?
Most frequent number
What is variability?
How much the score differ from each other?
What tool is used to measure variability?
Standard deviations (average exam score of 70% with 5% std. dev. means most people scored between a 65-75%)
What are inferential statistics?
Likelihood of luck or chance
What value for the probability of chance do we need for a sample to be adequate?
What is a positive correlation?
When two things move in tandem
What is a negative correlation?
When one thing goes up, the other goes down
What range of values do we use to describe correlation?
-1.0 to 1.0 (closer to -1 and 1, the stronger correlations)
Why is experimental research used?
It is used to determine the cause
What is the independent variable?
Variable that is manipulated in experimental research
What is the dependent variable?
Change in this variable is measured when the independent variable is manipulated
What are confounding variables?
Uncontrolled variables that can effect the research
What is random assignment?
Ensures that each participant has a random change of being assigned to any one group
What is a single-blind study?
When the participants don't know which group they are in (which are on placebo for example)
What is a double-blind study?
When both the participants and the researcher don't know who is on the placebo/etc.
What is informed consent?
Make sure the participants understand the physical and emotional risks
What is a debriefing?
After the study is over the participants are told everything about the study (for example if parts were fake/acting)
Some facts on animal testing
There is more control,
What is external validity?
How well the results of an observation generalize to other situations