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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (15):
1

ethical theory

a systemic examination of morals involving critical reflection and analysis about what is right and wrong

2

morality

that which is right and good; the quality of an action with regard to right and wrong

3

ethics

the inquiry into the nature of morality or moral acts; values by which human beings live in relation to other human beings, nature, a higher power and/or themselves

4

amoral

to be without morals; that which is indifferent to morality

5

autonomous

independent and self-determining

6

character

collectively, the qualities that define a person or group of persons; a person's moral nature

7

moral reasoning

the formulation of a morally ideal course of action; the process of judging what one ought to do in a specific situation

8

consequentialism

the theory that the rightness or wrongness of actions is determined by consequences; also called teleology

9

utilitarianism

the theory that an action is right when it conforms to a rule of conduct or judgment providing the greatest balance of good or evil; also termed deontology

10

nonconsequentialism

theory which asserts that an action is right when it conforms to a duty or rule; also called deontological ethics or Kantian ethics

11

virtue ethics

a theory that focuses on the character traits of an individual rather than on the individual's specific behavior

12

Piaget's 4 stage model of moral development

1. Amoral (0-2 yrs)
2. Egocentric (2-7 yrs) bends rules and reacts to environment instinctively
3. Heteronomous (7-12 yrs) accepts moral authority of others
4. Autonomous (12 and up) a morality of self based on cooperation; rules tested and become internalized

13

Kohlberg's 3 level model of moral development

1. Preconventional reasoning, in which externally established rules determine right and wrong action
Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation
Stage 2: instrumental relativist orientation
2. Conventional reasoning, in which expectations of family and groups are maintained and where loyalty and conformity are considered important
Stage 3: interpersonal concordance orientation
Stage 4: law and order orientation
3. Postconventional or principled, in which the person autonomously examines and defines moral values with decisions of conscience dictating the right action
Stage 5: social contract legalistic orientation
Stage 6: universal ethical principle orientation

14

Gilligan's model of moral development

1. Orientation to individual survival and being moral is surviving by being submissive to society
2. Goodness as self-sacrifice, in which being moral is first not hurting others with no thought of hurt to self
3. Morality of nonviolence; avoiding hurt becomes the moral guide governing all moral reasoning

15

3 classical views of moral reasoning

1. Consequentialism: based on the results of actions (consequences)
2. Deontology, or Nonconsequentialism: a duty has to be done regardless of consequences. It is an obligation.
3. Virtue Ethics: virtue is the basis of morality. Should act kind and good, not relying on rules. Every person should act as a virtuous person.