Ch. 2 Flashcards Preview

Ethics > Ch. 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (15):

ethical theory

a systemic examination of morals involving critical reflection and analysis about what is right and wrong



that which is right and good; the quality of an action with regard to right and wrong



the inquiry into the nature of morality or moral acts; values by which human beings live in relation to other human beings, nature, a higher power and/or themselves



to be without morals; that which is indifferent to morality



independent and self-determining



collectively, the qualities that define a person or group of persons; a person's moral nature


moral reasoning

the formulation of a morally ideal course of action; the process of judging what one ought to do in a specific situation



the theory that the rightness or wrongness of actions is determined by consequences; also called teleology



the theory that an action is right when it conforms to a rule of conduct or judgment providing the greatest balance of good or evil; also termed deontology



theory which asserts that an action is right when it conforms to a duty or rule; also called deontological ethics or Kantian ethics


virtue ethics

a theory that focuses on the character traits of an individual rather than on the individual's specific behavior


Piaget's 4 stage model of moral development

1. Amoral (0-2 yrs)
2. Egocentric (2-7 yrs) bends rules and reacts to environment instinctively
3. Heteronomous (7-12 yrs) accepts moral authority of others
4. Autonomous (12 and up) a morality of self based on cooperation; rules tested and become internalized


Kohlberg's 3 level model of moral development

1. Preconventional reasoning, in which externally established rules determine right and wrong action
Stage 1: punishment and obedience orientation
Stage 2: instrumental relativist orientation
2. Conventional reasoning, in which expectations of family and groups are maintained and where loyalty and conformity are considered important
Stage 3: interpersonal concordance orientation
Stage 4: law and order orientation
3. Postconventional or principled, in which the person autonomously examines and defines moral values with decisions of conscience dictating the right action
Stage 5: social contract legalistic orientation
Stage 6: universal ethical principle orientation


Gilligan's model of moral development

1. Orientation to individual survival and being moral is surviving by being submissive to society
2. Goodness as self-sacrifice, in which being moral is first not hurting others with no thought of hurt to self
3. Morality of nonviolence; avoiding hurt becomes the moral guide governing all moral reasoning


3 classical views of moral reasoning

1. Consequentialism: based on the results of actions (consequences)
2. Deontology, or Nonconsequentialism: a duty has to be done regardless of consequences. It is an obligation.
3. Virtue Ethics: virtue is the basis of morality. Should act kind and good, not relying on rules. Every person should act as a virtuous person.