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Flashcards in ch. 2 & 3 review Deck (86):
1

how to form the mandato positive informal (tú)

third person form

2

how to form the mandato negative informal (tú)

yo form
drop o
add alternate ending ex. ar to er, er/ir to ar
add no at the beginning

3

you say

di

4

you do/make

haz

5

you go

ve

6

you put

pon

7

you go out

sal

8

you be... (ser)

9

you have

ten

10

you come

ven

11

don't go

no ve

12

don't say

no di

13

don't make/do

no haz

14

don't go out

no sal

15

don't be...
ser, yo

no sé

16

don't have

no ten

17

don't come

no ven

18

how to form negative tú commands with car verbs

c to qu
saque, no saques

19

how to form negative tú commands with gar verbs

g to gu
llegue, no llegues

20

how to form negative tú commands with zar verbs

z to c
empiezo, no empieces

21

how to form formal commands (Usted/Ustedes)

yo form
drop o
add opposite ending

22

conducer, conocer, commands

conduzca, conduzcan
conozco, conozcan

23

traer commands

traiga, traigan

24

Usted/Ustedes give

Dé(n)

25

Usted/Ustedes be (estar)

Esté(n)

26

Usted/Ustedes go

Vaya(n)

27

Usted/Ustedes know (saber)

Sepa(n)

28

Usted/Ustedes be (ser)

Sea(n)

29

how to form the subjunctive

yo form
exchange ends er/ir verbs with ar ends
ar with er/ir ends

30

conocer subjunctive

conozca/as/a/amos/áis/an

31

hacer subjunctive

haga/as/a/amos/áis/an

32

poner subjunctive

ponga/as/a/amos/áis/an

33

venir subjunctive

venga/as/a/amos/áis/an

34

buscar subjunctive

busque/es/e/emos/éis/en

35

pagar subjunctive

paque/es/e/emos/éis/en

36

empezar subjunctive

empiece/es/e/emos/éis/en

37

stem-changing verbs subjunctive rules e-ie verbs

ie for yo, tú, él, ellos
no change for nosotros and vosotros

38

stem-changing verbs subjunctive rules o-ue

ue for yo, tú, él, ellos
no change for nosotros and vosotros

39

stem-changing verbs er/ar subjunctive rules

stem changes remain as they do in indicative (boot verbs)
pensar, piense, pienses, piense, pensemos, penséis, piensen

40

stem-changing verbs ir subjunctive rules

stem changes remain as they do in indicative (boot verbs) but change from e to i, and o to u in third person singular and plural
sentir, sienta, sientas, sienta, sintamos, sintáis, sientan

41

how to form the preterit ar verbs

é, aste, ó, amos asteis, aron

42

how to form the preterit er verbs

í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron

43

how to form the preterit ir verbs

í, iste, ió, imos, isteis, ieron

44

how to form car verbs in preterit

qué, caste, có, camos, casteis, caron

45

how to form zar verbs in preterit

cé, zaste, zó, zamos, zasteis, zaron

46

how to form gar verbs in preterit

gué, gaste, gó, gamos, gasteis, garon

47

how to form leer, creer, and oír preterit

í, íste, yó, ímos, ísteis, yeron

48

how to form the imperfect ar verbs

aba, abas, aba, ábamos, abais, aban

49

how to form the imperfect er/ir verbs

ía, ías, ía, íamos, íais, ían

50

ir imperfect conj

iba, ibas, iba, íbamos, ibais, iban

51

ser imperfect conj

era, eras, era, éramos, erais, eran

52

ver imperfect conj

veía, veías, veía, veíamos, veíais, veían

53

how to form mandato nosotros form
negative or positive

yo form
drop o
add opposite ending
emos for ar verbs
amos for er/ir verbs

54

stem changing verbs mandato nosotros form
dormer
competir

o-ue-u durmamos
e-i-i compitamos

55

pronouns with commands
where?

added to the end

56

Let's...

Vamos a + infinitive

57

Let's not...

No vayamos a

58

subjunctive uses

commands
doubt
emotions
feelings
hopes
influence
probability
requests
recommendations
volition/will
wishes

59

present perfect uses

indicate what someone has done
I have met, we have decided

60

present perfect form

present form of haber and past participle

61

haber present tense

he
has
ha
hemos
habéis
han

62

how to form the past participle ar verbs

ado

63

how to form the past participle er/ir verbs

ido

64

past participle abrir

abierto

65

past participle escribir

escrito

66

past participle decir

dicho

67

past participle hacer

hecho

68

past participle morir

muerto

69

past participle poner

puesto

70

past participle resolver

resuelto

71

past participle romper

roto

72

past participle ver

visto

73

past participle volver

vuelto

74

past participle ser

sido

75

past participle ir

ido

76

past participle cubrir

cubierto

77

object and reflexive pronoun placement with past participles

before haber

78

past participle traer

traído

79

definite articles (7)

before abstract nouns
before parts of body, clothes (when preceeded by reflexive verb or when possessor is clear)
before days of week to me "on"
before dates and times of day
before names of languages except when they follow de, en or hablar
before titles except San, Santa, don, doña
before names of certain cities, regions, countries

80

indefinite articles (2)

Omitted after
following hacerse, ser
when followed by unmodified noun referring to nationality political affiliation, profession, religion
before cien(to), cierto, medio, mil, otro, tal
after con and sin
in negative sentences and after verbs like buscar, haber, tener when numerical notion of un and una is not important
Used following
before numbers used to indicate approximate amounts
before modified nouns

81

preterit uses (5)

1. specific event in past
2. an act begun/completed in the past
3. sequence or series of completed events moving narrative along
4. relate an action took place in specific amt of time
5. central action

82

imperfect used (6)

1. habitual/repeated actions
2. was/were-ing
3. background information, set the stage, express pre-existing condition
4. tell time in past
5. describe physical/emotional states/characteristics
6. interrupt ongoing action
7. descriptive details of central action

83

doubt expressions/words (4)

dudar
no creer
no estar seguro (de)
no pensar

84

certainty expressions/words (4)

no dudar
creer
estar seguro (de)
pensar

85

reporting results of actions
the windows are closed
the door was open already

estar + past participle

86

yo form
drop o
use opposite ending
= ? (4)

1 negative tù command
2 Usted/Ustedes positive command
3 nosotros positive or negative command
4 subjunctive