Flashcards in Ch. 2: Breathing and speech production/ breathing Apparatus Deck (78):
anatomy of breathing
how many vertebrae are there?
how many spinal nerves are there?
how many cervical vertebrae?
how many thoracic vertebrae?
how many lumbar vertebrae?
how many sacral vertebrae?
5 (which are fused)
how many coccygeal vertebrae?
5 (which are fused)
how many ribs?
what do the ribs attach to?
the sternum and costal cartilage
what makes up the pectoral girdle?
clavicles (2) (collarbones)
what makes up the pelvic girdle?
coxal bone (2) aka hip bones, combine with the sacral + coccygeal portions.
what does the breathing apparatus include?
pulmonary - chest wall unit
-provide oxygen of cells of the body
-remove carbon dioxide from cells
physiology of the pulmonary apparatus
-pulmonary airways (aka pulomanary tree)
anatomy of the pulmonary apparatus
vertebrae / spinal nerves
what makes up the skeletal superstructure of the breathing apparatus?
breakdown the pulmonary airways (aka pulmonary tree) : tubes! :
-c shaped cartilages with open-ends towards the back.
- flexible wall shared with the esophagus.
(300 million) : where O2 and CO2 are exchanged
pair of spongy structures with resilient elastic fibers.
parts of the lungs
lungs are covered with this airtight membrane.
inner surface of chest wall where it contacts the lungs.
-allows pleura to move easily upon one another.
- links two pleura together ("pleural linkage") so that the lungs and chest wall move as a unit.
-encases and provides structure for pulmonary apparatus.
- made up of muscles.
-rib cage wall
-dome -shaped muscle, like an inverted bowl. Left side slightly lower than right.
- muscle includes central tendon.
-connective tissue and several large muscles.
- increased: stomach, intestines... suspended from above by a suction force underneath the diaphragm.
scalenus (anterior,medius, posterior)
serratus posterior inferior
lateral iliocostalis cervics
lateral iliocostalis lumborum
lateral iliocostalis thoracis
rib cage: muscles
lateral iliocostalis lumborum
chest wall muscles ( Abdominal wall)
chest wall muscles
-pulmonary apparatus and chest wall combine to form a functional unit.
- linked by pleural membranes.
-when linked, assume a resting position somewhere in the middle of the two.
-force of pulmonary aparatas is opposed by an equal and opposite force of the chest wall.
pulmonary chest wall unit
passive force pressures
active force muscles
forces of breathing
-the natural recoil of muscles, cartilages, ligaments, and lung tissue.
-the surface tension of the aveoli.
-the pull of gravity.
passive force: pressures.
-the actions of the muscles of the chest wall
-rib cage wall muscles
active force: muscles
-alveolar pressure: (lungs)
-MOST important for speech
-pleural pressure: inside thorax, but outside lungs
-abdominal pressure: within abdominal cavity.
-trans-diaphragmatic pressure: difference between pleural and abdominal pressures.
passive force: pressures
what creates alveolar pressure?
what is most important for speech?
what are most important for speech? passive or active pressures?
where is pleural pressure created?
inside thorax, but outside lungs
where is abdominal pressure created?
within the abdominal cavity.
the difference between pleural and abdominal pressures is?
- movements of the rib cage wall
-movements of the diaphragm
-movements of abdominal wall
movements of the abdominal wall
1) upward and forward, downward and backward. (handle on a water pump)
2) upward and outward, downward and inward (bucket handle )
movements of the rib cage wall
- movements of the diaphragm
-movements of the abdominal wall
______ changes from front to back dimension.
______ changes side to side dimension.
(together in a phase.
Output variables of breathing:
1) volume variable
2) pressure variable
3) shape variable
(chest wall shape)
site of the three-dimensional space: lung volume + lung capacity
the volume of air inspired or expired during the breathing cycle: normal breathing
Tidal volume (TV)
the maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the tidal end- inspiratory level MAX IN
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
the maximum volume of air that can be expired from the tidal end- expiratory level MAX OUT.
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
the volume of air remaining at the end of a maximum expiration.
Residual volume (RV)
the maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the resting end- expiratory level (reach ceiling)
Inspiratory capacity (IC)
the maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration (or inspired after a maximum expiration.
vital capacity (VC)
the amount of air in the pulmonary apparatus at the resting tidal and expiratory level.
functional residual capacity (FRC)
the volume of air in the pulmonary apparatus after a maximum inspiration.
total lung capacity (TLC)
____ = TV + IRV
(IC) Inspiratory capacity
____ = IC + ERV
(VC) Vital capacity
____ = ERV + RV
(FRC) Functional residual capacity
____ = VC + RC
(TLC) Total lung capacity
force distributed over a surface
pressure inside the lungs
- measured in centimeters of water or, cmH2O.
configuration of an object, independent of size and volume.
how many cranial nerves are there?
innervate muscles that dilate and larynx and upper airway durning inspiration
cranial nerves (4)
the four cranial nerves
______ is the passive forces of breathing and ______ is the active forces of breathing.
Broad, thick structure positioned on the front and side of the neck. It originates in two subdivisions, one at the top of the sternal end of the clavicle. Fibers from these subdivisions pass upward and backward and insert into the bony skull behind the ear. When the head is fixed in position, contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in elevation of the sternum and clavicle. The force generated is transmitted to the ribs through their connections to the sternum and clavicle. Consequently, the ribs are also elevated.
three separate muscles that form a functional group. Positioned on the side of the neck.
originates from the third through sixth cervical vertebrae and runs downward and toward the side to insert along the inner border of the top of the first rib.
muscle arises from the lower six cervical vertebrae and descends along the side of the vertebral column to insert into the first rib behind the point of insertion of the scalenus anterior muscle.
muscle originates from the lower two or three cervical vertebrae and passes downward and toward the side to attach to the outer surface of the second rib. When the head is fixed in position, contraction of the scalenus anterior and/ or scalenus medius muscles results in elevation of the first rib, whereas contraction of (this muscle) results in elevation of the second rib.
muscle is broad, fan shaped muscle positioned on the upper front wall of the rib cage. This muscle has a complex origin that includes the front surface of the upper costal cartilages, sternum, and inner half of the clavicle. Fibers run across the front of the rib cage wall and converge to insert into the humerus. When the humerus is held in position, contraction of this muscle pulls the sternum and ribs upward.
relatively large, thin muscle. Its fibers originate from the second through fifth ribs near their cartilages. From there, they extend upward and toward the side, where they insert into the front surface of the scapula. When the scapula is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle elevates the second through fifth ribs.