Ch. 2: Breathing and speech production/ breathing Apparatus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2: Breathing and speech production/ breathing Apparatus Deck (78):
1

anatomy of breathing

skeletal superstructure
breathing apparatus

2

how many vertebrae are there?

34

3

how many spinal nerves are there?

31

4

how many cervical vertebrae?

7

5

how many thoracic vertebrae?

12

6

how many lumbar vertebrae?

5

7

how many sacral vertebrae?

5 (which are fused)

8

how many coccygeal vertebrae?

5 (which are fused)

9

how many ribs?

12

10

what do the ribs attach to?

the sternum and costal cartilage

11

what makes up the pectoral girdle?

clavicles (2) (collarbones)
scapulae (2)

12

what makes up the pelvic girdle?

coxal bone (2) aka hip bones, combine with the sacral + coccygeal portions.

13

what does the breathing apparatus include?

pulmonary apparatus
chest wall
pulmonary - chest wall unit

14

-provide oxygen of cells of the body
-remove carbon dioxide from cells

physiology of the pulmonary apparatus

15

-pulmonary airways (aka pulomanary tree)
-lungs

anatomy of the pulmonary apparatus

16

vertebrae / spinal nerves
ribs
pectoral girdle
pelvic girdle

what makes up the skeletal superstructure of the breathing apparatus?

17

trachea
bronchi
alveolor

breakdown the pulmonary airways (aka pulmonary tree) : tubes! :

18

-c shaped cartilages with open-ends towards the back.
- flexible wall shared with the esophagus.

trachea

19

bronchi breakdown:

m
l
s
s
s
t
b
t
r

main-stem bronchi
lobar bronchi
segmental bronchi
subsegmental bronchi
small bronchi
terminal bronchi
bronchioles
terminal bronchioles
respiratory bronchioles

20

alveolor breakdown:

alveolor ducts
alveolor sacs
alveoli

21

(300 million) : where O2 and CO2 are exchanged

alveoli

22

pair of spongy structures with resilient elastic fibers.

lungs

23

visceral pleura
parietal pleura
lubricant

parts of the lungs

24

lungs are covered with this airtight membrane.

visceral pleura

25

inner surface of chest wall where it contacts the lungs.

parietal pleura

26

-allows pleura to move easily upon one another.
- links two pleura together ("pleural linkage") so that the lungs and chest wall move as a unit.

lubricant

27

-encases and provides structure for pulmonary apparatus.
- made up of muscles.

chest wall

28

-rib cage wall
-diaphragm
-abdominal wall

chest wall

29

-dome -shaped muscle, like an inverted bowl. Left side slightly lower than right.
- muscle includes central tendon.

diaphragm

30

-connective tissue and several large muscles.
- increased: stomach, intestines... suspended from above by a suction force underneath the diaphragm.

abdominal wall

31

sternocleidomastoid
scalenus (anterior,medius, posterior)
pectoralis major
pectoralis minor
subclavius
serratus anterior
external intercostals
internal intercostals
transversus thoracis
latissimus dorsi
serratus posterior inferior
lateral iliocostalis cervics
lateral iliocostalis lumborum
lateral iliocostalis thoracis
levatores costarum
quadratus lumborum
subcostals
diaphram

rib cage: muscles

32

latissimus dorsi
lateral iliocostalis lumborum
quadratus lumborum

chest wall muscles ( Abdominal wall)

33

rectus abdominis
external oblique
internal oblique
transversus abdominis

chest wall muscles

34

-pulmonary apparatus and chest wall combine to form a functional unit.
- linked by pleural membranes.
-when linked, assume a resting position somewhere in the middle of the two.
-force of pulmonary aparatas is opposed by an equal and opposite force of the chest wall.

pulmonary chest wall unit

35

passive force pressures
active force muscles

forces of breathing

36

-the natural recoil of muscles, cartilages, ligaments, and lung tissue.
-the surface tension of the aveoli.
-the pull of gravity.

passive force: pressures.

37

-the actions of the muscles of the chest wall
-rib cage wall muscles
-diaphragm
-abs.

active force: muscles

38

-alveolar pressure: (lungs)
-MOST important for speech
-pleural pressure: inside thorax, but outside lungs
-abdominal pressure: within abdominal cavity.
-trans-diaphragmatic pressure: difference between pleural and abdominal pressures.

passive force: pressures

39

what creates alveolar pressure?

lungs

40

what is most important for speech?

passive pressures

41

what are most important for speech? passive or active pressures?

passive pressures

42

where is pleural pressure created?

inside thorax, but outside lungs

43

where is abdominal pressure created?

within the abdominal cavity.

44

the difference between pleural and abdominal pressures is?

trans-diaphragmatic pressure

45

- movements of the rib cage wall
-movements of the diaphragm
-movements of abdominal wall

muscles: active

46

inward (exhale)
outward (inhale)

movements of the abdominal wall

47

1) upward and forward, downward and backward. (handle on a water pump)

2) upward and outward, downward and inward (bucket handle )

movements of the rib cage wall
- movements of the diaphragm
-movements of the abdominal wall

48

______ changes from front to back dimension.
______ changes side to side dimension.
(together in a phase.

pump handle
bucket handle

49

Output variables of breathing:

1) volume variable
2) pressure variable
3) shape variable

(lung volume)
(alveolar pressure)
(chest wall shape)

50

site of the three-dimensional space: lung volume + lung capacity

volume variable

51

the volume of air inspired or expired during the breathing cycle: normal breathing

Tidal volume (TV)

52

the maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the tidal end- inspiratory level MAX IN

Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)

53

the maximum volume of air that can be expired from the tidal end- expiratory level MAX OUT.

Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)

54

the volume of air remaining at the end of a maximum expiration.

Residual volume (RV)

55

the maximum volume of air that can be inspired from the resting end- expiratory level (reach ceiling)

Inspiratory capacity (IC)

56

the maximum volume of air that can be expired after a maximum inspiration (or inspired after a maximum expiration.

vital capacity (VC)

57

the amount of air in the pulmonary apparatus at the resting tidal and expiratory level.

functional residual capacity (FRC)

58

the volume of air in the pulmonary apparatus after a maximum inspiration.

total lung capacity (TLC)

59

____ = TV + IRV

(IC) Inspiratory capacity

60

____ = IC + ERV

(VC) Vital capacity

61

____ = ERV + RV

(FRC) Functional residual capacity

62

____ = VC + RC

(TLC) Total lung capacity

63

force distributed over a surface

pressure variable

64

pressure inside the lungs
- measured in centimeters of water or, cmH2O.

alveolar pressure

65

configuration of an object, independent of size and volume.

shape variable

66

how many cranial nerves are there?

4

67

innervate muscles that dilate and larynx and upper airway durning inspiration

cranial nerves (4)

68

glossopharyngeal (IX)
vagus (X)
hypoglossal (XII)
accessory (XI)

the four cranial nerves

69

(22)

spinal nerves

70

______ is the passive forces of breathing and ______ is the active forces of breathing.

pressures
muscles

71

Broad, thick structure positioned on the front and side of the neck. It originates in two subdivisions, one at the top of the sternal end of the clavicle. Fibers from these subdivisions pass upward and backward and insert into the bony skull behind the ear. When the head is fixed in position, contraction of the sternocleidomastoid muscle results in elevation of the sternum and clavicle. The force generated is transmitted to the ribs through their connections to the sternum and clavicle. Consequently, the ribs are also elevated.

sternocleidomastoid

72

three separate muscles that form a functional group. Positioned on the side of the neck.

scalenus anterior
scalenus medius
scalenus posterior

73

originates from the third through sixth cervical vertebrae and runs downward and toward the side to insert along the inner border of the top of the first rib.

scalenus anterior

74

muscle arises from the lower six cervical vertebrae and descends along the side of the vertebral column to insert into the first rib behind the point of insertion of the scalenus anterior muscle.

scalenus medius

75

muscle originates from the lower two or three cervical vertebrae and passes downward and toward the side to attach to the outer surface of the second rib. When the head is fixed in position, contraction of the scalenus anterior and/ or scalenus medius muscles results in elevation of the first rib, whereas contraction of (this muscle) results in elevation of the second rib.

scalenus posterior

76

muscle is broad, fan shaped muscle positioned on the upper front wall of the rib cage. This muscle has a complex origin that includes the front surface of the upper costal cartilages, sternum, and inner half of the clavicle. Fibers run across the front of the rib cage wall and converge to insert into the humerus. When the humerus is held in position, contraction of this muscle pulls the sternum and ribs upward.

pectoralis major

77

relatively large, thin muscle. Its fibers originate from the second through fifth ribs near their cartilages. From there, they extend upward and toward the side, where they insert into the front surface of the scapula. When the scapula is fixed in position, contraction of this muscle elevates the second through fifth ribs.

pectoralis minor

78

muscle is small that originates from the undersurface of the clavicle. It runs slightly downward and toward the midline, where it attaches at the junction of the first rib an it's cartilage. When the clavicle is braced, contraction of this muscle elevates the first rib.

subclavius