Flashcards in Ch 2 Chemistry Deck (38):
smallest unit of matter that can undergo a chemical reaction. made of P+, neutrons, and e-
atom with a consistent number of protons
Atoms are most stable when thier outer most shell is full
ex: hydrogen atom= 1 P+ in nucleus and 1 e- in shell so it will form a bond with another H+ atom and then they are both more stable
the tendancy of an an atom to pull e- toward itself
atom with more or less electrons than protons
weak attraction of (+) and (-) ions has a full charge
shared pair of e-
non-polar covalent bond
when 2 atoms with equal electronegativitiy equally sharing a bond
polar covalent bond
2 atoms of UNEQUAL electronegatitivity sharing a bond unequally. Has a partial charge.
sphere of water surrounding ions that will pull ionic compounds apart .
salt desolves in H2O is actully H2O forms hydration sheres around ions pulling them apart.
Hydration spheres form around all bonds except nonpolar covalent bonds (lipids/fats)
weak attraction btwn a (+) polar H and a (-) polar O, N, S
Dissociation of H2O
in every glass of H2O there is a bunch of H2O and some H+ and OH- bc O is so electroneg. that H sometimes just steels H ion
measurement of H+ concentration
add H+ to the system
acidodic (too much H+) use bicarb (HCO3-)
bicarb + H+ -> H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
taking H+ away from the system
alkalotic (too little H+)
chemical system that maintains a narrow pH range
typically buffers are 2 diff chemicals, one for acidotic conditions and one for alkolotic conditions
= acid in your blood
fx: energy, fuel broken down to make ATP
also used as immune markers and structurally in our DNA
carbo (C) hydrate (H2O)
ex: glucose c6 H12 O6 or Ribose c5 H10 O5
"down, down, up, down" Draw!
carb dehydration systhesis
remove H20 and connect two sugars, Draw!
1. Starch= plan sugar in storage form
2. Cellulose (fiber)= plant body storage
3. Glycogen= animal sugar storage
add H20, Draw!
non-polar carbon based compounds
insoluable in polar based solutions (water)
fx: energy storage, themal insulation, padding, some hormones like steroids, cell membranes
Hook them together glycerol dehyrated (loose 3H30) with 3 FA = tryglyceride, Draw!
diglycerol dehydrated with phosphate, draw!
Steroils or Steroids
compounds based on cholesterol
non-fatty acid base lipids
four ringed compounds/lipids
used in cell membranes
steroid hormones= communication thoughout the body
polymers of aa, draw aa
4 categories of aa, based on R-group
1. non-polar aa
2. polar aa (polar= partial charge)
2a. acidic (negative)
why would you want a negative aa?
non-polar aa would not disolve in H2O
ex. keratin is non-polar aa, purpose is to keep H2O from leaving the body b.c dehydration
between 2 aa, draw!
4 structures of proteins
1. primary= linear sequence of aa with peptide bonds
2.secondary=alpha helix (spiraling) in the chain due to H+ bonds
3. balling up on itself to form a glob or stay linear as a collagen fiber
*ionic bonds-basic and acidic aa
* covalent bonds
*van der waals forces
4. 2 or more polypeptides or protein fragments group together to form a functional protein. (ionic, covalent, H-bonds, van der waal forces all can form betwn diff polypeptides
Van Der waal forces
hydrophobic attraction. non-polar aa will stay together in a watery enviornment (me)
immune funchtion- ab
DNA or RNA
polymers of nucleotides (P-S-B-N)
H bonds formed betwn nucleic bases of DNA double helix
master pattern for proteins