Ch 2 Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 Chemistry Deck (38):
1

Atom

smallest unit of matter that can undergo a chemical reaction. made of P+, neutrons, and e-

2

Element

atom with a consistent number of protons

3

Atoms are most stable when thier outer most shell is full

1st= 2e-
2nd= 8e-
3rd=8e-
ex: hydrogen atom= 1 P+ in nucleus and 1 e- in shell so it will form a bond with another H+ atom and then they are both more stable

4

Electronegativity

the tendancy of an an atom to pull e- toward itself

5

ion

atom with more or less electrons than protons

6

ionic bond

weak attraction of (+) and (-) ions has a full charge

7

covalent bond

shared pair of e-

8

non-polar covalent bond

when 2 atoms with equal electronegativitiy equally sharing a bond

9

polar covalent bond

2 atoms of UNEQUAL electronegatitivity sharing a bond unequally. Has a partial charge.

10

hydration sphere

sphere of water surrounding ions that will pull ionic compounds apart .
salt desolves in H2O is actully H2O forms hydration sheres around ions pulling them apart.
Hydration spheres form around all bonds except nonpolar covalent bonds (lipids/fats)

11

Hydrogen bond

weak attraction btwn a (+) polar H and a (-) polar O, N, S

12

Dissociation of H2O

in every glass of H2O there is a bunch of H2O and some H+ and OH- bc O is so electroneg. that H sometimes just steels H ion

13

pH

measurement of H+ concentration
water= 7pH

14

acidic

add H+ to the system
acidodic (too much H+) use bicarb (HCO3-)
bicarb + H+ -> H2CO3 (carbonic acid)

15

alkaline (basic)

taking H+ away from the system
alkalotic (too little H+)
reverse last

16

blood pH

dead dead

17

Buffers

chemical system that maintains a narrow pH range
typically buffers are 2 diff chemicals, one for acidotic conditions and one for alkolotic conditions

18

CO2

= acid in your blood

19

Carbohydrates

Fats
fx: energy, fuel broken down to make ATP
also used as immune markers and structurally in our DNA
carbo (C) hydrate (H2O)
ex: glucose c6 H12 O6 or Ribose c5 H10 O5

20

Glucose

"down, down, up, down" Draw!

21

carb dehydration systhesis

remove H20 and connect two sugars, Draw!

22

3 polysaccharides

1. Starch= plan sugar in storage form
2. Cellulose (fiber)= plant body storage
3. Glycogen= animal sugar storage

23

Hydrolysis

add H20, Draw!

24

Lipids

non-polar carbon based compounds
insoluable in polar based solutions (water)
fx: energy storage, themal insulation, padding, some hormones like steroids, cell membranes

25

lipid structure

O=C>>>>>
I
OH

26

lipid storage

Hook them together glycerol dehyrated (loose 3H30) with 3 FA = tryglyceride, Draw!

27

phospholipid

diglycerol dehydrated with phosphate, draw!

28

Steroils or Steroids

compounds based on cholesterol
non-fatty acid base lipids
four ringed compounds/lipids
used in cell membranes
steroid hormones= communication thoughout the body

29

Protiens

polymers of aa, draw aa

30

4 categories of aa, based on R-group

1. non-polar aa
2. polar aa (polar= partial charge)
2a. acidic (negative)
2b. basic

31

why would you want a negative aa?

non-polar aa would not disolve in H2O
ex. keratin is non-polar aa, purpose is to keep H2O from leaving the body b.c dehydration

32

peptide bond

between 2 aa, draw!

33

4 structures of proteins

1. primary= linear sequence of aa with peptide bonds
2.secondary=alpha helix (spiraling) in the chain due to H+ bonds
3. balling up on itself to form a glob or stay linear as a collagen fiber
*ionic bonds-basic and acidic aa
* covalent bonds
*H-bonds
*van der waals forces
4. 2 or more polypeptides or protein fragments group together to form a functional protein. (ionic, covalent, H-bonds, van der waal forces all can form betwn diff polypeptides

34

Van Der waal forces

hydrophobic attraction. non-polar aa will stay together in a watery enviornment (me)

35

protein fx

enzymes
structure/strength
transport protein
carrier protein
immune funchtion- ab
receptors
muscle contractions
movement

36

Nucleic Acids

DNA or RNA
polymers of nucleotides (P-S-B-N)
H bonds formed betwn nucleic bases of DNA double helix

37

DNA

master pattern for proteins

38

RNA

working copy of DNA that you can use to make more proteins