Ch 2 Exam 1 Carbs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 2 Exam 1 Carbs Deck (66):
1

primary role of carbs in the body?

Supply Energy
Maintain blood glucose
burn fat for fuel
provide bulk in the diet (satiety)
spare protein, for energy
continue brain/nervous system while sleeping

2

Abbreviation for Carbohydrates?

CHO

3

Carb is made up of?

carbon
hydrogen
oxygen

4

What is referred to as SIMPLE SUGARS?

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides

5

What are simple sugars but not sweet to the taste?

Lactose
Glucose

6

What is the simplest Carb?

Monosaccharides

7

What is the main source for the body's fuel that supplies energy?

Glucose (dextrose)

8

If too much of this______is consumed it will be converted into fat and stored for future energy?

Glycogen

9

T/F Most sugars are disaccharides and have two monosaccharides

True

10

Foods high in complex carbs contain?

vitamins
Minerals
fiber
water

11

T/F Complex carbs supply more nutrients than simple ones

True

12

Lactose splits into 2 monosaccharides during digestion, what are they? (found in milk)

glucose
galactose

13

Name the Monosaccharides?

Glucose
Galactose
Fructose

14

Name the Disaccharides?

Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose

15

Name the Complex Polysaccharides(Composed of more than 10 sugar unit)?

Starch
Glycogen
Fiber
Oligosaccharide

16

1) Main fuel for brain and needed for WBC's & RWC's
2) Most abundant carb found in nature
3) Found naturally in fruits/vegs such as grapes, tomatoes and apples

Glucose (dextrose)

17

1) Sweetest of the monosaccharides
2) Found in many fruits and honey

Fructose (levulose)

18

1) Body converts glucose glucose to galactose in mammary tissue during lactation; makes lactose in breast milk
2) Fund in dairy products and some legumes

Galactose

19

1) Made up of glucose and fructose
2) Found abundantly in fruits and vegetables
also known as table sugar and 16% of calories in an average western diet

Sucrose

20

(milk Suagr)
1) Made up of glucose and galactose
2) Found in milk products

Lactose

21

(plant sugar)
1) made up of 2 glucose molecules
2) By-product from the breakdown of polysaccharides
3) found in beer and malt beverage

Maltose

22

1) stored form of energy in plants from glucose
2) Nutritionally most important carb
3)Stores energy
4) breaks down at a slow rate
Sources include rice, potatoes, pasta and legumes

Starch

23

Nutritionally most important carb?

Starch

24

What are the most predominant starch?

Amylose
Amylopectin

25

Amylose is found in what?

grains, beans, potatoes, and some fruits

26

Amylopectin is known as a?
from string pasta when heated, used to thicken foods

Waxy Starch

27

1) provides 12-24 hrs of stored energy
2) Stores in liver and muscle
3) in liver, to regulate blood sugar for the brain
4) in muscle, for muscle contraction
5) Most highly branch chain of glucose

Glycogen

28

Not a significant as a food source?

Glycogen

29

How much fiber should one consume a day?

25-38 grams

30

1) Usually referred to as "roughage:
2) It is not used by the body for energy
3) Found exclusively in plants

Fiber

31

What are the two general classes of fiber?

Soluble
Nonsoluble

32

Function of Soluble Fiber

Gives texture to food
Gives a sense of fullness
Stabilizes blood sugar
Helps lower cholesterol

33

Function of Insoluble Fiber

Stimulating peristals (poo) & keeps colon muscles exercised
Decreases constipation
Prevents hemorrhoids
Prevents colon cancer

34

T/F Soluble fiber dissolves in water. example; beans, oatmeal, oat bran, sweet potatoes, mangos

True

35

T/F Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. examples; rice, whole grains, corn, broccoli, dark green leafs

True

36

High blood glucose/hyperglycemia is anything over?

100

37

Low blood glucose/hypoglycemia is anything under?

80

38

Normal blood sugar is?

80-100 mg/dl of blood

39

Maintaining the right amount of blood glucose?

Homeostasis

40

T/F The rapid release of the fatty acids causes partial breakdown in the liver which leads to formation of KETONES. With ketones circulating, the body enters KETOSIS as a response to the fuel shortage?

True

41

T/F Monosaccharides do not require breakdown by enzymes, but disaccharides and polysaccharides have to be reduced to monosacchardies by enzymes before they can be absorbed/used in the body?

True

42

Order of digestion of Carbs

1) mouth
2) Polysaccharides mix w/ salivary amylase
3) which reduce to Disaccharides
4) Into the stomach , then small intestines, then pancreas
5) which breaksdown monosaccharides .
6) travels to bloodsteam
7) then to liver for processing nutrients to body

43

What organ secretes insulin?

Pancreas

44

Where is Glucose stored? And converted to what?

Muscle and liver
Glycogen

45

What race are more prone to lactose intolerance?

Asians
Native Americans
African Americans

46

What does one molecule consist of?

6 carbon
12 hydrogen
6 oxygen

47

What two hormones involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?

Insulin and glucagon

48

Suggestions on maintains blood glucose levels?

Eat carbs throughout day, preferably complex. Because it is metabolized more slowly through the body and avoid refined sugars, because they are empty calories

49

Sucrose is broke down by?

Sucrase

50

Maltose is broke down by?

Maltase

51

Lactose is broke down by?

Lactase

52

T/F No recommended dietry intake for CHO's/loosely recommended 55-65% of total calorie intake (300-500g)

True

53

_______are referred to as complex carbohydrates?

Polysaccharides

54

T/F it takes two Monosacchardies to make a disaccharide

True

55

Glucose + fructose =

Sucrose

56

Glucose + glucose =

Maltose

57

Glucose + galactose =

Lactose

58

Glucose is?

Blood sugar

59

Fructose is?

Fruit sugar

60

Galactose is?

Milk

61

T/F Fiber is thousands of glucose units bonded together

True

62

T/F Humans do not have enzymes that can break down and digest fiber

True

63

A numeric ranking system for carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose levels?

Glycemic Index

64

Explain carb digestion?

Starts in mouth
Mixed with amylase, continues with pancreatic amylase in small intestines. Passes way of small intestines where absorbed by body

65

The chemical building blocks for CHOs are called?

Monosaccharides

66

Which monosaccharide is the main unit of CHO?

Glucose