Flashcards in Ch 2 Exam 1 Carbs Deck (66):
primary role of carbs in the body?
Maintain blood glucose
burn fat for fuel
provide bulk in the diet (satiety)
spare protein, for energy
continue brain/nervous system while sleeping
Abbreviation for Carbohydrates?
Carb is made up of?
What is referred to as SIMPLE SUGARS?
What are simple sugars but not sweet to the taste?
What is the simplest Carb?
What is the main source for the body's fuel that supplies energy?
If too much of this______is consumed it will be converted into fat and stored for future energy?
T/F Most sugars are disaccharides and have two monosaccharides
Foods high in complex carbs contain?
T/F Complex carbs supply more nutrients than simple ones
Lactose splits into 2 monosaccharides during digestion, what are they? (found in milk)
Name the Monosaccharides?
Name the Disaccharides?
Name the Complex Polysaccharides(Composed of more than 10 sugar unit)?
1) Main fuel for brain and needed for WBC's & RWC's
2) Most abundant carb found in nature
3) Found naturally in fruits/vegs such as grapes, tomatoes and apples
1) Sweetest of the monosaccharides
2) Found in many fruits and honey
1) Body converts glucose glucose to galactose in mammary tissue during lactation; makes lactose in breast milk
2) Fund in dairy products and some legumes
1) Made up of glucose and fructose
2) Found abundantly in fruits and vegetables
also known as table sugar and 16% of calories in an average western diet
1) Made up of glucose and galactose
2) Found in milk products
1) made up of 2 glucose molecules
2) By-product from the breakdown of polysaccharides
3) found in beer and malt beverage
1) stored form of energy in plants from glucose
2) Nutritionally most important carb
4) breaks down at a slow rate
Sources include rice, potatoes, pasta and legumes
Nutritionally most important carb?
What are the most predominant starch?
Amylose is found in what?
grains, beans, potatoes, and some fruits
Amylopectin is known as a?
from string pasta when heated, used to thicken foods
1) provides 12-24 hrs of stored energy
2) Stores in liver and muscle
3) in liver, to regulate blood sugar for the brain
4) in muscle, for muscle contraction
5) Most highly branch chain of glucose
Not a significant as a food source?
How much fiber should one consume a day?
1) Usually referred to as "roughage:
2) It is not used by the body for energy
3) Found exclusively in plants
What are the two general classes of fiber?
Function of Soluble Fiber
Gives texture to food
Gives a sense of fullness
Stabilizes blood sugar
Helps lower cholesterol
Function of Insoluble Fiber
Stimulating peristals (poo) & keeps colon muscles exercised
Prevents colon cancer
T/F Soluble fiber dissolves in water. example; beans, oatmeal, oat bran, sweet potatoes, mangos
T/F Insoluble fiber does not dissolve in water. examples; rice, whole grains, corn, broccoli, dark green leafs
High blood glucose/hyperglycemia is anything over?
Low blood glucose/hypoglycemia is anything under?
Normal blood sugar is?
80-100 mg/dl of blood
Maintaining the right amount of blood glucose?
T/F The rapid release of the fatty acids causes partial breakdown in the liver which leads to formation of KETONES. With ketones circulating, the body enters KETOSIS as a response to the fuel shortage?
T/F Monosaccharides do not require breakdown by enzymes, but disaccharides and polysaccharides have to be reduced to monosacchardies by enzymes before they can be absorbed/used in the body?
Order of digestion of Carbs
2) Polysaccharides mix w/ salivary amylase
3) which reduce to Disaccharides
4) Into the stomach , then small intestines, then pancreas
5) which breaksdown monosaccharides .
6) travels to bloodsteam
7) then to liver for processing nutrients to body
What organ secretes insulin?
Where is Glucose stored? And converted to what?
Muscle and liver
What race are more prone to lactose intolerance?
What does one molecule consist of?
What two hormones involved in maintaining blood glucose levels?
Insulin and glucagon
Suggestions on maintains blood glucose levels?
Eat carbs throughout day, preferably complex. Because it is metabolized more slowly through the body and avoid refined sugars, because they are empty calories
Sucrose is broke down by?
Maltose is broke down by?
Lactose is broke down by?
T/F No recommended dietry intake for CHO's/loosely recommended 55-65% of total calorie intake (300-500g)
_______are referred to as complex carbohydrates?
T/F it takes two Monosacchardies to make a disaccharide
Glucose + fructose =
Glucose + glucose =
Glucose + galactose =
T/F Fiber is thousands of glucose units bonded together
T/F Humans do not have enzymes that can break down and digest fiber
A numeric ranking system for carbohydrates based on their immediate effect on blood glucose levels?
Explain carb digestion?
Starts in mouth
Mixed with amylase, continues with pancreatic amylase in small intestines. Passes way of small intestines where absorbed by body
The chemical building blocks for CHOs are called?