Ch. 20-21 Flashcards Preview

Biology > Ch. 20-21 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 20-21 Deck (42):
1

8 major land biomes

tundra, taiga, temperate deciduous forests
tropical forest, temperate grassland, savanna, chaparral, desert

2

tundra

cold, little rain
thin soil covers permafrost, soil- low in nutrients
moss, lichen,grasses
caribou,polar bears, snowy owls

3

taiga

cold long winters,
short growing seasons, soil-low in nutrients
coniferous trees-pines, fir
moose, brown bear, voles

4

temperate deciduous forest

trees loose their leaves, cold winters, warm summers, moderate rainfall
oak, birch trees
deer, raccoons, red fox

5

tropical forests

warm, many trees, growing season all year long, high rainfall
moss, orchids,many vines
monkeys, insects, snakes

6

temperate grasslands

cold winters, warm dry summers
rich fertile soil
many grasses, flowers
bison, antelope, coyotes

7

savanna

warmer seasons, wet and dry seasons
acacia trees, shrubs, grasses
zebra, lions,hyena

8

chaparral

mild rainy winters, dry hot summers
spiny shrubs, manzanita
grey fox,coyote, rattlesnake

9

desert

very little rainfall, can be very hot and cold
soil-sandy, low nutrients
cacti-plants adapted to deserts
road runner, kit foxes, snakes

10

major ocean zones

aphotic zone, photic zone, intertidal zone,neritic zone,oceanic zone (pelagic, benthic zone)

11

aphotic zone

receives no sunlight, no photosynthesis

12

photic zone

receives sunlight

13

intertidal zone

area of the shore between high tide and low tide, constant change in conditions

14

neritic zone

from the intertidal zone over the continental shelf, most productive area of the ocean per m2, brings up nutrients from the bottom (upwelling), rich in plankton/fish, coral reefs form here

15

oceanic zone

deepest parts of the ocean, lower nutrients, less productive
pelagic zone, benthic zone

16

pelagic zone

open ocean, aphotic

17

benthic zone

bottom, aphotic, some chemosynthesis

18

estuaries

fresh water rivers and streams flow into the ocean, lots of light and nutrients, high species richness

19

eutrophic lakes/ponds

rich organic matter and vegetation, tend to be murky

20

oligotrophic lakes/ ponds

clear, low in organic matter, sandy, rocky bottom

21

upwelling

brings up nutrients from the bottom

22

earth's layers

atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere

23

GREEN HOUSE EFFECT

asgas

24

WETLANDS

afgd

25

ozone layer

20km above earth, absorbs about 99% of UV radiation

26

cause and effect of ozone thinning

cause-CFCs breaking down the ozone
effect-global warming, more skin cancer

27

species biodiversity

the species richness and species evenness inn an area

28

utilitrian value

species used for common everyday uses (food, medicine, cleaning air, etc.)

29

nonutilitarian value

have value simply just because they exist

30

acid precipitation (cause+effect)

cause-pollutants combine with water in the atmosphere and form acids
effect-changes pH level (increase acidity of water and soil), death to trees and fish, etc

31

biological magnification +ex

chemicals become more concentrated the higher an organisms is in the food chain ex: DDT and bald eagles

32

ecological footprint

analysis of human impact on eco systems- takes into account food, natural resources, and human production of waste/pollution
can estimate long term sustainability

33

sustainability

ability to meet human needs in a way that human population can survive indefinately
develop new tech for energy, transportation...
slow human pop growth, reduce consumption

34

conservation biology +ex

save and manage areas that still have high biodiversity ex:preserving land

35

restoration biology

restoring areas of extreme ecosystem damage ex: florida everglades

36

debt-for nature swap

richer countries or private organizations help pay debts of developing countries, in return the developing countries preserve natural areas

37

ecotourism

tourism that supports the preservation of ecologically rich areas, and provides a living for local people

38

urban ecology

study of biodiversity in densely populated areas

39

estimate of # of species

2-100 millions~best guess now 10-14 million

40

CO2 levels' peak?

winter

41

both types of acid rain

H2SO4-coal (eastern US)
HNO3-motor vehicals

42

examples of saving an endangered species

1937-15 whooping cranes left
gov. regulated hunting and winter refuge sites (TX)
1967- captive breeding program started
2001- pilots lead migration route