Flashcards in Ch 20-21 Deck (150):
As far as voter loyalty, the guilder age saw...
People rarely shifted loyalty from one party to another
What did elections often come down to?
A few key states, ex: NY, Illinois, and Ohio
What political party did the north predominantly belong to?
What political party did the South predominantly belong to?
This political party had more widespread support throughout the states than the other
What did the Democratic Party want as far as the role of the federal government?
States rights and a decentralized government
What did the Democratic Party want as far as tariffs went?
What regions most predominantly made up the Democratic Party?
South and Southwest
What type of people most likely were to vote for the democrats?
Farmers, immigrants, and the working pool
Why did the working class vote democratic?
They saw job competition with African Americans
What did the Republican Party advocate for?
Civil rights and an increase in the role of government
Where did the majority of republicans live?
How did the republicans want to stimulate industry?
Higher protective tariffs and subsidies
What did the majority of republicans think about tariffs?
Majority wanted higher tariffs, however, some wanted to lower tariffs
What party one the majority of elections during the gilded age?
Who's presidency marked the end of reconstruction?
Rutherford B Hayes
Who was the only president elected twice in non consecutive terms? Hint: he was also the only democratic president during the gilded age
Who went into office after the assassination of president Garfield ?
Chester A Arthur
Who went into office after the assassination of McKinley?
What voting trends were seen during the gilded age?
High voter turnout (white males)
What tactics kept African Americans from exercising their legal right to vote?
Poll tax, literacy tests, eight boxes
What resulted from the impeachment of president Johnson?
Diminished presidential strength
After reconstruction, people shifted their attention from the federal government to ___________
This person dominated NY politics during the gilded age, he believed strongly in the spoils system
Who won the election of 1880?
Who was the democratic candidate and loser in the election of 1880?
What was Garfield plan to unite the Republican Party?
Lower some tariffs
Who assassinated president Garfield?
Why did Charles Guiteau assassinate Garfield?
He was upset he had not been given a chance in office
Regarding tariffs, what did Chester A Arthur do once he got into office?
Continue trying to lower tariffs
This act passed by Chester A Arthur dealt with how government jobs were given out
What did the Pendleton act set up that derailed the spoils system?
Civil service commission
Who were the presidential candidates in the election of 1884?
Grover Cleveland and James Blaine
Who won the election of 1884?
What did Cleveland look to do in his first term in office?
Cut federal governments activities and involvement in economy and business, laissez faire approach
This act passed by Cleveland was the first attempt of the federal government to regulate business, especially railroads. It did away with rebates upon other things
Interstate commerce act
What did the interstate commerce act set up?
What was the main issue in the election of 1888?
Who were the two candidates in the election of 1888?
Cleveland and Harrison
Why did Cleveland lose the election of 1888?
Republicans used his dislike of tariffs against him, said he was trying to undermine industry
Who got a majority of the popular vote in 1888?
Who got the majority in the electoral college?
What was suggested about Harrison's election into office?
Perhaps he had won some votes in the north by coercion and persuasion
Not only did the republicans win the presidency, but they also______
Won both houses of congress
What was a consequence of the republicans winning the house & senate ?
Able to pass legislation easier
First attempt to try to break up big business and regulate business activity
Sherman anti trust act
What was the problem of the Sherman anti trust act?
It was to vague and left in the hands of the courts, which weakened it
This famous Supreme Court case crippled the Sherman anti trust act by making a distinction between commerce and manufacturing
United States vs. E.C Knight Co
This tariff raised the tariffs to 4% higher than it had ever been before
Who put forth the McKinley tariff?
This act passed in 1878 kept the monitization of silver
Bland Allison Act
His act, passed in 1890, continues the limited use of silver, thus keeping the US on a bimetallic system
Sherman Silver Purchase Act
Who did the Sherman Silver Purchase Act please?
The South and West
Who did the Sherman Silver Purchase Act dismay?
What did the democrats call the republican congress because of all of the spending it did?
Billion dollar congress
What causes the republicans to undergo huge setbacks and lose control of the house in the 1890 elections?
Growth of the Gov and Federal Power
Who were the democratic and republican candidates in the election of 1892?
Grover Cleveland (D) and Benjamin Harrison (R)
Who did the Populist Party nominate as a candidate during the election of 1892?
James B Weaver
What did the peoples party platform entail?
-Gov would take over railroads, telephones, and telegraphs,
-remonetization of silver
-direct elections of senators rather than states deciding
Who did the peoples part represent?
Farmers and westerners
What did the peoples party grow out of?
Who won the election of 1892?
This was a period of economic mayhem
The panic of 1893
What caused the panic of 1893?
Industry grew to quickly, people borrowed too much money, outgrew markets, etc
What debate arose from the panic of 1893?
What was the role of the gov?
This person led 300 marchers from Ohio to Washington DC to try together funding for roads and other projects
What happened to Coxey upon arrival to Washington DC?
He was arrested and beaten by police
This 1994 strike was one of the biggest in us history
Why did workers at Pullman palace car company go on strike?
To protest wage cuts, increased rents, and people being laid off
This person led the American Railway Union in joining the Pullman Strike, immensely increasing the size of it
How did the American Railway Union join?
They refused to handle any trains pulling Pullman cars
What was the consequence of the strike??
Shut down railroads and factories
This is a court order telling workers to get back to work, Cleveland used one to end the Pullman strike
What else did Cleveland do the end the strike?
What did Cleveland believe was the reason for economic downfall in 1893?
The Sherman silver purchase act
What did Cleveland do to the Sherman silver purchase act?
Repeals it in 1893
What was the consequence of repealing the Sherman silver purchase act?
It negatively effected us
Who was the democratic candidate in the election of 1896?
William Tennings Bryan
What did the election of 1896 mainly focus on?
What did the Democratic Party and Bryan support in the bimetallic issue?
They wanted to continue the monitization of silver
Who was the republican candidate during the election of 1896?
This act singed but McKinley after the Spanish American war, put the US on a gold standard
Gold standard act
The Illinois constitution declared railroads to be_____
This court case ruled that private property must submit to being controlled for the common good
Munn vs Illinois
This case weakened the Munn vs Illinois case, it said that states cannot regulate commerce extending their borders
This act granted pensions to veterans and their widows and children
Dependent pensions act
Why did America look for foreign markets during imperialism?
American industry and farming was producing more goods than Americans could consume
This naval strategist talked about how the US needed a new modernized navy
Alfred T Mahan
What was Mahans book titled?
The influence of sea power and history
What were the three pendants Mayhan said we needed to strengthen the navy?
1) 2 ocean navy
2) Naval bases around the world
This congregational minister argued that the US was obligated to civilize and Christianity other races
Why did the belief that the frontier was closing spur imperialism?
Our land of opportunity would run out
This expansionist and Secretary of State laid the groundwork for future expansion
Wha was the name for the purchase of Alaska from Russia?
Why did Seewald want to buy Alaska?
He thought it was the first step of claiming all of Canada
Why did missionaries initially go to Hawaii?
To Christianize the people
What was Hawaii nicknamed because of all of the shipping lanes?
Crossroads of the pacific
This Queen came to power after the Hawaiian King died
What did the McKinley tariff do to the Hawaiian sugar market?
It raided barriers and tariffs
Why did American planters want to annex Hawaii?
It would eliminate or lower tariffs on sugar
Who led the rebellion against the Hawaiian monarch?
Stanford B Dole
The _______ supported the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarch
What did Cleveland attempt to do about the rebellion in Hawaii, but failed?
He tried to restore the Queen
What president was Hawaii finally annexed under?
Who served as the president of Hawaii while it was a republic?
What did dole serve as once Hawaii was annexed into the us?
What was the Spanish American war nicknamed?
The splendid little war
Why did the public empathize with the Cubans attempt to leave Spanish rule?
It reminded Americans of our revolution
This Spanish generals reconstruction policy concentrated masses of Cubans in remote areas of Cuba
The papers of ________ and ________ were always competing?
Joseph Pulitzer, William Randolph Heart
Who said "you furnish the pictures, I'll furnish the war"
What did yellow journalism do?
Generated public sympathy from US
Spanish diplomat for the US
What did the De alone scandal entail?
In a letter leaked to the press, de lome portrayed McKinley as a weak and corrupt president
Why was the USS Maine sent down to Cuba?
To protect Americas economic interest and Americans if needed
What happened to the USS Maine?
It exploded, killing us sailors
What did yellow journalism blame the explosion on?
What was Teddy Roosevelt's position before war was declared?
Assistant Secretary of Navy
Who did Teddy Roosevelt give instructions to leave Hong Kong and head towards the Philippines before war was declared?
Where did 6 US War ships sail into in May of 1898?
Who led the Filipino insurgents in aiding the US against the Spanish?
First US volunteer cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt
Teddy Roosevelt led the rough riders up this hill to defeat the Spanish
San Juan hill
This was the main cause of death for American soldiers fighting the Spanish
What territories was the US given at the end of the war?
Guam and Puerto Rico
This said that the US would grant the Cubans their freedom once the Spanish was ousted
Treaty between US and Cuba that attempted to prevent Cuban independence, replaced the teller amendment
The platt amendment included the lease of ________
Filipinos used this style of fighting in their rebellion against the US
What even led to the failure of the filipino rebellion?
The capture of Aguinaldo
This organization was made of American people against expansion
American anti imperialist league
Who proposed the open door policy in china?
Secretary of State John Hay
Who was Americas youngest president?
This warned Germany and Britain that they were getting to involved in Latin America
Treaty that ended the Russo Japanese war, negotiated in part by Roosevelt
Treaty of Portsmouth
Where was the treaty of Portsmouth negotiated?
What did Roosevelt win for his efforts in bringing peace between Russia and Japan?
Nobel peace prize
Roosevelt sent the __________ on an around the world tour
Great white fleet
What was the purpose of the great white fleet?
Show goodwill and strength to other nations
Belief that the US should stay out of foreign entanglements
Who was Secretary of State under Garfield and Harrison?
James G Blaine
What did Blaine use to seek wider markets in Asia, Latin America, and Africa?
Tariff reciprocity agreements
Law that said that developments of race parallel the developments of an individual
Who invented biogenetic law?
Popular writer and lecturer who argued for Anglo Saxon superiority, said that English and American would occupy every land
What was the title of Josiah Strongs book?
Our country: it's possible future and it's present crises
Was Ulysses S grant an expansionist?
This was the conservatism sec of state under grant
Demands that the uk pay for damages done to union ships by confederate vessels