Ch. 20 Reproductive and Developmental Biology Flashcards Preview

Human Biology > Ch. 20 Reproductive and Developmental Biology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 20 Reproductive and Developmental Biology Deck (45):
1

penis

delivers sperm to female reproductive tract during sex. composed of spongy erectile tissue, that during arousal, fills with blood. the pressure from increased volume seals off veins that drain the blood and makes it erect

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urethra

tube inside penis that lets sperm and urine outside the body

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glans penis

head that consists of very sensitive skin, covered by foreskin

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scrotum

pouch that contains testicles. thin with no fatty tissue. underlying is involuntary muscle that regulates position of testes to ensure optimum temperature for sperm production

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testicles

produce sperm and androgens. contains seminiferous tubules

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seminiferous tubules

highly coiled tubes inside testicles where sperm are produced. held in place by connective tissue rich in leydig cells

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leydig cells

hormone producing cells

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epididymis

6m coiled tube that rests on top of each teste. takes 20 days for sperm to travle through

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vas deferens

sperm carrying ducts from which ejaculated sperm goes through. surrounded by smooth muscles capable of peristalic contractions

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seminal vesicles

glands secrete mucus and fructose for energy for sperm

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prostate

gland secretes thin, milky white fluid into urethra. nutrients for sperm.

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bulbourethral glands

between prostate and penis. secretes clear mucus just before ejaculation that neutralizes any acidic urine in urethra

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semen

sperm, mucus/fructose, white fluid from prostate, and neutralizing mucus

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vulva

2 sets of labia. majora and minora

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ovaries

female gonads. produce gametes and sex hormones. size of walnut. contain 2 milion eggs at birth

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follicle

fluid filled sac containing mature eggs, release them during menstrual cycle. secretes estrogen. ruptures to release egg

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corpus luteum

remnant of follicle after rupture. releases hormones estrogen and progesterone

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vagina

muscular organ. passageway to uterus

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uterus

size of fist. wall is thick (1cm) contract during labor. inner surface is endometrium

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cervix

narrow lower 1/3 of uterus

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oviducts

extension of top of uterus. tubes that connect uterus to ovaries. dont touch ovaries. move over surface and suck up eggs.

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infertility

failure to acheive pregnancy after 1 year of unprotected sex. can be caused by STDs, endocrine disruptors, and problems in reproductive anatomy

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gametogenesis

process of producing sex cells. involves meiosis (2n=46 to n=23 chromosomes)

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spermatogenesis

begins in testes at puberty

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primary spermatocyte

diploid cell that begins meisosis. each parent cell first divides by mitosis

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secondary spermatocyte

cell after first meiotic division of primary. 23 duplicated unpaired chromosomes. haploid

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spermatids

secondary after meiosis 2. 23 unduplicated unpaired chromosomes. haploid

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steroli cells

aid in developing sperm. secrete substance that converts spermatids to spermatazoa by removing excess cytoplasm.

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spermatazoa

mature sperm. composed of small head with DNA, middle piece with mitochondria, and a flagellum (tail)

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acrosome

tip of sperms head. contains digestive enzymes to help gain access to egg

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track sperm through anatomy

seminiferous tubules->epididymis to mature and store->vas deferens->seminal vesicles to make semen and mix it with sperm

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oogenesis

unequal meisosis.

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oogonium

parent cell divides by mitosis

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primary oocyte

46 chromosomes. diploid

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secondary oocyte

23 duplicated unpaired chromosomes. haploid. and a polar body after meiosis 1

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ovum

after meiosis 2 and ovulation. 23 single unpaired chromosomes and 3 polar bodies.

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polar body

degenerates. not used in oogenesis and fertilization

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zygote

diploid cell from joined sperm and egg. undergoes multiple mitotic divisions

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fetus

developing human

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oxytocin

hormone secreted by uterus to start contractions

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blastocyte

hollow ball several days after fertilization

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gastrula

3 layers of cells in a ball. ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

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ectoderm

outer layer of gastrula. makes skin, nervous system, and sense organs

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mesoderm

middle layer of gastrula. makes muscles, excretory organs, circulatory organs, gonads, and skeleton

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endoderm

inner layer of gastrula. makes digestive and respiratory organs