Ch. 21 Nutrition & Digestion Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Ch. 21 Nutrition & Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 21 Nutrition & Digestion Deck (78):
1

What are the 2 major modes of nutrition?

1) Autotrophs "self feeding"
2) Heterotroph "feed on other organisms"

2

What are the 2 types of autotrophs?

1) Chemoautotrophs - chemosynthesis
2) Photoautotrophs - photosynthesis

3

What are the 2 types of heterotrophs?

1) Absorptive - digest food outside (via body surface)
2) Ingestive - to eat; internal digestion
- herbivores, carnivores, omnivore

4

What are the 4 stages of food processing?

1) Ingestion
2) Digestion
3) Absorption
4) Elimination

5

Ingestion

Act of eating; putting food in body
1) Suspension feeders "filter feeds"
2) Substrate feeders
3) Fluid feeders
4) Bulk feeders

6

Suspension feeders

"Filter feeders"
- obtain food molecules suspended in water
- ex. whales, clams, oysters, scallops

7

Substrate feeders

Live/on food source; eat way thru it
- ex. caterpillars, snails, earthworm

8

Fluid feeders

Suck nutrient rich fluids from plant/animal
- ex. mosquitos, hummingbirds, ticks

9

Bulk feeders

Ingest large pieces of foods; specialized body parts to ingest large pieces (jaws, pincers, fangs)
- ex. wolf, octopus, people, buffalo, frog

10

Digestion

Breaking large complex food molecules into smaller, simpler monomers
- 2 phases: Mechanical breakdown (chewing, muscle) & chemical breakdown (enzyme hydrolysis)

Function: Mechanical/chemical breakdown of food

11

Absorption

When small nutrient molecules are taken in by cells lining the digestive tract and transported via vessels
- used to make ATP and building material

Function: Transfer of nutrients into bloodstream (first to liver)

12

Elimination

No longer useful so elimination
- indigestible materials passes out of digestive tract

13

How do single celled organisms digest?

Intracellular digestion
- lysosomes combine with food vacuoles

14

How do simple multicellular organisms digest?

Gastrovascular cavity (one opening, most of body)
- support, facilitate distribution of materials

15

How do complex multicellular organisms digest?

Complete digestive tract
- alimentary canal
- 2 openings w/ long tube

16

What does the type of specialized region of digestion depend on?

Type of habitat, types of food digested, and complexity.

17

Omnivores

An animal that eats both plants/animals

18

Herbivores

An animal that eats only plants

19

Carnivores

An animal that eats other animals

20

Why can't animals use large polymers in organic matter directly?

1) macromolecules are too large to pass thru plasma membrane and enter cell
2) needs monomers to make polymers of own body

21

Gastrovascular cavity

A digestive compartment w/ a single opening, the mouth, may function in circulation, body support, waste disposal, and gas exchange, as well as digestion
- simple animals

22

Alimentary canal

Continuous passage way that extends 30ft from mouth to anus
- 8 specialized regions w/ unique structure/function
- A digestive tract consisting of a tube running b/w a mouth and anus

23

Accessory Organs

Not apart of the alimentary canal but attached to it and aids
- 4 regions: liver, pancreas, gallbladder, salivary glands

24

What are the 8 specialized regions of the alimentary canal?

1) Oral Cavity (mouth)
2) Pharynx (throat)
3) Esophagus (gullet)
4) Stomach
5)
6)
7)
8)

25

Oral Cavity

Structure that receives food (ingestion) and tastes food
- prepares food for swallowing
- carbohydrates digested here
- structures: teeth (32), tongue, salivary glands

26

What is the function of teeth?

Break down food into smaller pieces
- increases surface area for enzymes

27

What is the function of the tongue?

Most muscular organ, speech but also aids in chewing/swallowing
- taste buds

28

What is the function of salivary glands?

Produce saliva
- helps lubricate food for chew/swallow
- contains salivary amylase (begins carbohydrate digestion)
- antimicrobial agents (fight infection)

29

Pharynx

Digestive & respirator tract (food/liquid and air)
- receives bolus from mouth and passes to next region
- structures: tonsils, uvula, epiglottis

30

Tonsils

2 lymph glands that attacks foreign substances

31

Uvula

Deflect food downwards, not upward to nose

32

Epiglottis

Covers windpipe while swallowing

33

Esophagus (gullet)

Muscular tube that receives food from pharynx, carries thru neck/chest to stomach
- 2 layers: circular & longitudinal
- peristalsis

34

Peristalsis

Involuntary rhythmic waves of muscle contraction
- propels food thru a digestive tract and also enables many animals, such as earthworms to crawl

35

Stomach

Storage pouch, allows for discontinuous eating
- acts as churn b/c mixes/breaks food
- enzymatic digestion
- structure: size of 2 fists but expands and highly folded
- entrance is guarded sphincters (cardiac and pyloric)
- gastric glands and chyme
- digestion of proteins begins

36

Gastric glands

Tissues lining stomach and activated by smell, sight, taste, release gastric juice
- regulated by brain/hormones
- 3 types: mucus (line stomach), parietal (for HCL acid), chief (for pepsinogen -> HCL)

37

Crop

A pouchlike organ in a digestive tract where food is softened and may be stored temporarily

38

Gizzards

A pouchlike organ in digestive tract b/w the gizzard or stomach

39

Intestine

The region of a digestive tract b/w the gizzard or stomach and the anus, where chemical digestion and nutrients absorption usually occurs

40

Anus

Opening on the far end of canal thru which undigested materials are expelled
- 12 to 36 hours

41

What are considered digestive glands?

Salivary glands, pancreas, liver

42

pyloric sphincter

In the vertebrate digestive tract, a muscular ring that regulates the passage of food out of the stomach into small intestine

43

Trachea

The windpipe; the portion of the respiratory tube b/w the larynx and the bronchi; one of many tiny tubes that branch thru out an insect's body, enabling gas exchange b/w outside air and body cells

44

Gastrin

A digestive hormone that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice
- acts like a negative feedback mechanism

45

Gastric ulcers

An open sore in the lining of the stomach, resulting when pepsin and hydrochloric acid destroy the lining tissues faster than they can regenerate
- caused by spiral prokaryote, Helicobacter Pylori

46

Small Intestine

"MVP" greatest amount of digestion, all of the absorption
- longest region of canal (23 ft)
- duodenum, jejunum, and ileum

47

Pancreas

A gland w/ dual functions
- the digestive portion secretes pancreatic juice
- the endocrine portion secretes the hormones insulin and glycogen into the blood
- neutralizes acid chyme

48

Liver

Largest internal organ, most versatile
- gatekeeper of blood
1) Produce bile
2) Detoxifying
3) Stores glycogen
4) Forms antibodies
5) Stores vitamins
6) Makes heparin (thins blood)
7) Produce blood plasmid proteins (thicken)
8) Urea can be removed

49

Bile

A solution of bile salts secreted by the liver, which emulsifies fats and aids in their digestion
- fat emulsifier

50

Gallbladder

An organ that stores bile and releases it as needed into small intestine
- small cone shaped organ bellow liver

51

Duodenum

The 10 - 12 inches of the vertebrate small intestine after the stomach, where acid chyme from the stomach is mixed with bile and digestive enzymes
- 2 ducts empty contents here (pancreatic and bile)
- digestion of fats begins

52

Villi

A fingerlike projection of the inner surfaces of the small intestine; a fingerlike protection of the chorion of the mammalian placenta; large #s increase surface area of organs

53

Microvilli

A microscopic projection on the surface of a cell; increases surface area

54

Colon

Large intestine; the tubular portion of the vertebrate alimentary tract b/w the small intestine and anus; functions mainly in water absorption and the formation of feces
- organ of reabsorption of water (90% of 7L)
- contains E. coli

55

Cecum

A blind out pocket of a hollo organ such as an intestine

56

Appendix

A small, fingerlike extension of the vertebrate cecum; contains a mass of white blood cells that contribute to immunity

57

Feces

Waste products of digestion, mainly indigestible plant fibers

58

Rectum

Temporary storage tube for fecal matter until defamation
- 6 to 8 inches
- 2 sphincters (voluntary, involuntary)

59

Why do herbivores (omnivores) have longer alimentary canals than carnivores?

Provides extra time to extract nutrients b/c plants are harder to digest due to cell walls and also have more surface area to absorb

60

Ruminant mammals

A mammal w/ 4 chambered stomach housing microorganisms that can digest cellulose
- ex. cattle, deer, sheep

Rumen -> Reticulum -> Omasum -> Abomasum

61

What are the 3 requirements of a healthy diet?

Animals must obtain...
1) Fuel to power all body activities
2) Organic raw material needed to make animal's own molecules
3) Essential nutrients (substances the animal cannot make for itself from any raw material but must obtain in prefabricated for from food)

62

Kilocalories

A quantity of heat equal to 1000 calories; used to measure the energy content of food, it is usually called a "calorie"

63

Basal Metabolic Rate

The # of kilocalories a resting animal requires to fuel its sensual body processes for a given time
- 1300 to 1800 kcal/day

64

Why are fats and lipids essential?

Insulate against cold. Can relate w/ healthy immune system.
Too much leads to disease and decreased lifespan.

65

Recommended Dietary Allowance

A recommendation for daily nutrient intake established by nutritionalists

66

What are the 9 essential amino acids?

1) Tryptophan
2) Methionine
3) Valine
4) Histidine
5) Threonine
6) Phenylalanine
7) Leucine
8) Isoleucine
9) Lysine

67

Where do you get essential amino acids and what is the consequences of their absence?

Eat meat and animal-by-products.

Consequences are limit use of other amino acids, impair protein synthesis, and protein deficiency.

68

Vitamin

An organic nutrient that an organism requires in very small quantities. Generally function as coenzymes.
- water soluble or fat soluble

69

Minerals

In nutrition, a chemical element other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen that an organism requires for proper body functioning

70

Low Density Lipoproteins

A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded; carries more cholesterol than a related lipoprotein (HDL) and high LDL levels in the blood correlate w/ a tendency to develop blocked blood vessels and heart disease

71

High Density Lipoprotein

A cholesterol-carrying particle in the blood, made up of cholesterol and other lipids surrounded by a single layer of phospholipids in which proteins are embedded; an HDL particle carries less cholesterol than LDL and may correlate w/ decreased risk of blood vessel blockage

72

What are the 3 regions of the small intestine?

1) Duodenum
2) Jejunum
3) Ileum

73

Jejunum

Longest section at 22 ft
- major site of absorption, transfer of nutrients to bloodstream
- lots of folds, villi that enable absorb nutrients

74

Ileum

Last few inches
- contain ileocecal sphincter

75

What is the ileocecal sphincter for?

Ring like muscle at exit of small intestine, determine how long food will be in small intestine

76

What are the 4 regions of the large intestine?

1) Ascending
2) Transverse
3) Descending
4) Sigmoid Colon

77

What is inside pancreatic juice?

Pancreatic amylase to complete carbohydrate digestion in small intestine.
Trypsin + Chymotrypsin completes protein digestion into smaller intestine.
Lipase is enzyme that breaks down fat.
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) neutralizes the chyme acid, deactivates protein enzymes of stomach, and activates small intestine enzymes.

78

Gallstones

Collection of cholesterol + substances that interfere with passing of bile