Flashcards in Ch. 22: Microbial Diseases Of The Nervous System Deck (29):
What is meningitis?
Where is it found?
Inflammation of the meninges, the bacteria is found in the subarachnoid space within the cerebral spinal fluid
Can meningitis be life-threatening?
Depends on the kind
What are the meninges?
Collective covering over the brain and spinal cord, three layers (Dura, Arachnoid, Pia Mater) and there is the subarachnoid space which contains cerebral spinal fluids
How do you diagnose meningitis?
Spinal tap, if the fluid is cloudy it's an emergency
How would a person present if they had meningitis?
Sudden onset of fever, stiff neck, headache, and delirium
What are the three most common pathogens bacterial meningitis?
1) Streptococcus pneumoniae
2) Haemophilis Influenza
3) Neisseria Meningitis
What type of microbes can cause meningitis?
* Anything except algae can find its way into the meninges
Tetanus produces a toxin called?
C. tentani is a common ______ borne type a pathogen, and a very common _____ type of infection.
* Soil (Contaminated with animal feces)
What pathogen causes botulism?
Botulism produces a variety of toxins and what's the most common one and what does it cause?
* Botulism Toxin A
* Causes flaccid paralysis, your muscles relax, there paralyzed in a relaxed state they can't contract and can be life-threatening
Botulism is a _____ borne type of pathogen
Rabies is caused by what pathogen?
* Type of fatal encephalitis
* 100% mortality rate
Once the rabies virus has entered the neuron can the immune system stop it, why or why not?
No, because the immune system can't get inside the neurons where the virus is
In the US what's the number one reservoir for rabies?
What happens if you get bit by a rabid animal?
* Have to do a PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxes)
* They gave you the immunoglobulin first and then the vaccine
What kind of animals are you more likely to get rabies from in the US?
What is the migration rate of the rabies virus?
What pathogen causes TSE?
Where do you occasionally here about N. meningitis?
Outbreaks on college campuses, normally found in the upper respiratory tract, and mouth to mouth contact between students can spread it.
Tetanospasmin locks the muscles into a state called?
Tetany, muscles are locked into a fully contracted state
If someone presents with signs and symptoms of tetanus what might be the first thing you want to introduce them to?
* Tetanus Immunoglobulin (TIG)
* You wouldn't want to inject a vaccine because the immune system is failing and it takes 10 days to bump up your anti-body titer, and the person could be dead by then
What's the immunoglobulin for in tetanus?
Anti-Tetanospasmin antibodies, The anti-bodies go and attack and neutralize the toxin, which is the first thing you'd do
How do you designate a prion?
What are some of the diseases caused by Prions?
* Mad cow disease
* Scrapie, affect sheep
* vCJD, human version of mad cow
How do you get Kuru?
Cannibalizing those who already have the disease
Which disease acquired from prions may be inherited and you don't start to presents with it until your mid 20s, and die from it a few years later?
vCJD and FFI (Fatal Familial Insomnia)