Ch. 22 Repiration Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 22 Repiration Deck (39):
1

What are the 2 factors for the type of respiratory structure?

1) Environment
2) Complexity

2

How do unicellular and simple multicellular respirate?

Diffusion b/c in contact with O2
- no specialized structure needed

3

What are 3 phases of gas exchange?

1) Breathing/General Respiration
2) Transport
3) Servicing of cells

4

Breathing / General Respiration

Inhalation and exhalation

5

Inhalation

Oxygen from external environment to inside
- muscles contract --> active
- increase volume, pressure decreases --> air flow in

6

Exhalation

CO2 from inside to out
- muscles relax --> passive
- volume decreases, pressure increases --> air expelled

7

Transport

Oxygen diffuses from respiratory to blood vessel, attach to hemoglobin and delivered to every cell
- CO2 opposite

8

Servicing of cells

Oxygen diffuse blood to cells and CO2 diffuse cell to blood
- oxygen is used in cellular respiration for release of ATP as it pulls electrons form organic compound to make H2O

9

Respiratory Surface

Site of gas exchange

10

What are the 3 characteristics for efficiency of respiratory surface?

1) Thin b/c diffusion needs small distance
2) Moist b/c gases must be dissolved in water for diffusion
3) Extensive surface area b/c meet the needs of every cell and dispose of CO2

11

4 types of respiratory organs

1) Skin
2) Gills
3) Tracheae
4) Lungs

12

Skin

Gas exchanged via skin as oxygen diffuses from the outside to the capillaries right underneath
- small, simple, long, thin, flat
- no specialized respiratory organ, use body
- invertebrate, water or moist soil, earthworm

13

Gill

Common for aquatic animals
- small amount of body but high surface area to volume
- surrounded by capillaries
- countercurrent exchange

14

What are 3 reasons why aquatic organisms struggle compared to terrestrial organisms?

1. Less oxygen in water. (1% vs 21%)
2. Diffusion of oxygen in water is 300x slower than air.
3. Air is lighter than water so its easier to move across respiratory surfaces

15

Tracheae

System of small tubers that branch thru out body and subdivide for higher surface area to volume
- tracheoles carry oxygen directly to cells
- doesn't use blood (less energy, smaller size)
- terrestrial arthropods
- no localized respiratory organs

16

Lungs

Respiratory organ in complex vertebrates (snail)
- site of oxygen in air in contact with blood, CO2 blood to air
- located in thoracic cavity
- bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries
- blood

An internal sac, lined with moist epithelium, where gases are exchanged b/w air and the blood

17

Gas Exchange (respiration)

Gas exchange or breathing; the exchange of O2 and CO2 b/w an organism and its environment. An aerobic organism takes up O2 and gives off CO2.
- cellular respiration; the aerobic harvest of energy from food molecules by cells

18

Ventilation

A mechanism that provides contact b/w an animal's respiratory surface and the air/water to which it is exposed. Contact b/w a respiratory surface and air/water enables gas exchange to occur

19

Countercurrent Exchange

The transfer of a substance from a fluid or volume of air moving in one direction to another fluid or volume of air moving in the opposite direction
- opposite flows maintain a diffusion gradient that enhances transfer of the substance

20

Tracheoles

The narrowest tube in an insect's tracheal system

21

Diaphragm

The sheet of muscle separating the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity in mammals; its contractions expands the chest cavity, and its relaxation reduces it

22

What is the pathway that air travels?

1. Nasal cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Larynx
4. Trachea
5. Bronchi
6. Alveoli
7. Lungs

23

Bronchioles

A thin breathing tube that branches from a bronchi within a tube

24

Pharynx

Digestive and respiratory tract (pathway for food/liquid and air)
- food enters pharynx ventral and exits dorsal
- air enters dorsally and exits ventral
- epiglottis

25

Larynx

The voice box, containing the vocal cords
- chamber surrounded by a rings of cartilage
- lined w/ ciliated mucus membrane
- mucus traps dust and pollen
- cilia has rhythmic sweeps upwards to push particles up

26

Vocal Cords

Elastic ridges stretched across laryngeal cavity.
- vibrate from air
- pitch affected by cord tension changes

One of a pair of stringlike tissues in the larynx. Air rushing past the tensed vocal cords make them vibrate, producing sound

27

Trachea

Windpipe w/ rings of cartilage for shape
- air tube at the front of the neck (pharynx to thoracic cavity)
- lined w/ cilia
- conducts air to/from lungs

28

Bronchi

One of a pair of breathing tubes that branch from the trachea into the lungs

29

Alveoli

One of millions of tiny sacs within the vertebrate lungs where gas exchange occurs
- primary functional unit of lungs
- thin, moist, lots of surface area, capillaries

30

Emphysema

A respiratory disease caused by smoking in which the alveoli becomes brittle and rupture, reducing the lung's capacity

31

Vital Capacity

The maximum volume of air that a respiratory system can inhale and exhale

32

Hyperventilating

Taking several deep breaths so rapidly that the CO2 level in the blood is reduced, causing the breathing control centers to temporarily shut down breathing movements
- too much O2 and too little CO2 such that temporarily cease breathing

33

Partial Pressure

A measure of the relative amount of gas in a mixture

34

Hemoglobin

An iron-containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds O2 and transports it to body tissues
- 4 polypeptide chains w// heme and iron atom carrying O2

35

Nasal Cavities

2 separated by septum
- warms, moistens, and clears air that is cold --> warm due to blood
- coated by mucus to moisten
- hair cleans air
- sense receptors for chemical stimuli --> smell
- air enters via nares
- nasal acrimal gland for runny nose to clean and push out bacteria

36

What are the 2 breathing muscles?

1. Diaphragm
2. Intercostal

37

Respiratory Control Centers

A brain center that directs the activity of organs involved in breathing.
- located in brainstem
- medulla oblongata and pons
- oxygen senors in large arteries near heart

38

What is the medulla oblongata?

Medulla oblongata is sensitive to CO2, monitors pH of blood, and cerebrum spinal fluid

39

What is the pons?

Maintains basic rhythm/depth of breathing set by medulla