Flashcards in Ch. 24: Microbial Diseases Of The Respiratory System Deck (35):
What do ear aches often begin as?
What type of strep is streptococcal pharyngitis?
What species is GAS?
When we speak of respiratory infections why do we include ear aches?
Because the Eustachian tubes connects the middle ear to the nasalopharynx.
What's scarlet fever?
Red patches on the skin, kind of a macular rash that's caused by erythrogenic toxin, that's produced by GAS.
What does erythro mean?
What does scarlet fever often begin as?
What's the pathogens that causes diphtheria, and what's unique about it?
* Corynebacterium diphtheriae
* Unique club shape to the bacteria
What's the vaccine for children and adults for Diphtheria?
* Kids: DTAP, begin at 2 months
* Adults: TDAP
What is otitis media?
Middle ear infection
What are the bacteria most commonly associated with otitis media?
* S. pneumonia (most common)
* H. influenza (same ones implicated in meningitis)
* Step. pyogenes (Because it often starts as a sore throat)
What are the two pathogens that causes the common cold?
* Rhinovirus (#1 cause)
The common cold has a hypothetical ID (Infectious Dose) of?
1 virus particle
What pathogen causes whooping cough (pertussis)?
What is the vaccine for whooping cough (pertussis)?
* DTAP (Diphtheria, Tetanus, Acellular, Pertussis), no longer a live virus starting in 1997
* A trivalent vaccine
What type of disease is TB considered as?
* Chronic disease
* But really rare when you consider the number of people affected by it
TB can be classified into two different types of infections, what are they?
What's the pathogen that causes TB?
Is the pathogen of TB fast or slow growers?
Grows very slow, the cell walls are covered with my mycolic acid, which several antibiotics can't penetrate very well
Is there a vaccine for TB?
* Yes, BCG A childhood vaccines used often in Latin American countries.
* Doesn't work well in adults, it's considered a childhood vaccine
What's the tuberculin skin test?
Sub-dermal test, they inject a cell wall extract into the skin and monitor it after 48 hours
How many people are infected by TB?
At least 1/3 of the worlds population
There is a strain of TB that's been the first strain of bacteria to ever be given the _______ designation over ______.
* XDR (Extensively Drug Resistant)
* MDR (Multidrug Resistant)
What's an indicator of a pneumococcal pneumonia (bacterial pneumonias)?
What causes it?
* Bloody sputum
* Rust colored sputum
* Caused by capillary hemorrhaging in the lungs
Influenza is considered a:
Where does the respiratory system start and where does it end?
What pathogen causes influenza?
How are influenza sub-typed?
What's there more of?
* HA spikes and NA spikes
* More HA spikes than NA
What kind of nucleic acid is in the influenza virus?
RNA (8 fragments of RNA)
What are the common animal reservoirs for influenza?
What are the type A?
Pig and birds
Type A ones are zoonosis, affect humans the most
Wood is this referred to in a clinical setting if the child has strep pneumoniae a middle ear infection?
Otitis media, and the organism would be pneumococcal otitis media
Why do children get otitis media more often than adults?
* Because they have shorter Eustachian tubes and the shape of the tube is more horizontal than adults
* Bacteria doesn't have to fight gravity
What are the three stages of whooping cough?
1) Catarrhal- Resembles a common cold
2) Paroxysmal- Continues coughing
Taking parts of Bordetella pertussis, break down the bacterium, and use it's part to make a vaccine