Ch. 27-30 (final) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 27-30 (final) Deck (91):
1

cultivars

member of a species that has at least one distinguishing charateristic

2

cereals +importance +ex.

-grasses that contain grains
-over half of world's cultivated land used for cereals
ex. corn, barley, oats

3

root crops +importance+ ex.

-roots or underground stems
-can substitute cereals
ex. potatoes, beets

4

legumes +importance+ ex.

-high in protein
-improve N content in soil
ex. pea, beans

5

fruits

contain seeds

6

vegetables

derived from leaves, stem, seed, root on nonwoody plants

7

herbs

leaves used to add taste

8

spices

parts other than leaves to add taste

9

flavorings

aren't spices or herbs ex. chocolate, coconut

10

non-food uses of plants

-Medicine-asprin (willow tree)
-clothing-cotten
-fuel

11

George Washington Carver

-applied scientific principles to agriculture
-improve soil with crop rotation
-conservation
-promoted planting peanuts

12

mycorrhizae

-fungus/root symbiotic relationship
-increases the root's ability to absorb water and inorganic compounds

13

nitrogen-fixing bacteria

takes nitrogen from air and "fixes" it so plants can user

14

challenges that land plants overcame

water loss, sunlight/radiation

15

cuticles

waxy and waterlight layer on epidermis of leaf to prevent waterloss

16

stomata

plants that have small openings on their surface

17

spores

a haploid reproductive cell protected by a hard outer wall

18

seeds

-embryo surrounded by a seed coat
-often contains endosperm food for the embryo

19

rhiziods

root-like structure in nonvascular plant

20

xylem

carries water and minerals up the plant

21

phloem

carries organic compounds throughout the plant

22

woody plants

-woody tissue
-formed from xylem, supports plant

23

herbaceous plants

-no woody tissue
-green flexible stems

24

nonvascular plants

- no vascular tissue
-no roots, leaves, or stems

25

vascular plants

-vascular tissue
-has roots, leaves, stems

26

seedless plants

reproduce by spores

27

seed plants

produce seeds

28

gymnosperms

seeds not in a fruit

29

angiosperm

seed in a fruit

30

evidence plants evolved from green algae

-both have chlorophyll a and b
-store energy as starch
-have cell walls made cellulose

31

ginkoes

-one species remains
-unique fan-like leaves

32

reproductive structures of conifers

seeds in a cone- not protected by a fruit

33

reproductive structures of flowering plants

flowers

34

flowers

reproductive structure

35

fruit

ripened ovary, contains seeds

36

monocots

-one cotyldon (seed leaf-food for embryo)
-parallel leaf veins
-scattered vascular bundles in stem
-flower parts in 3

37

dicots

-two cotyledons
-net-like leaf veins
-vascular bundles in ring
-flowers in 4 or 5

38

apical meristems

tips of roots and stems

39

intercalary meristems

base of leaves/stems in grasses
allows continual growth

40

lateral meristems

-in gymnosperms and many dicots
-allows increase in diameter

41

primary growth

growth in length

42

secondary growth

growth in diameter

43

taproot

one main root grows downward

44

fibrous roots

many small roots grow outward

45

adventitious roots

specialized roots that grow from uncommon areas

46

epiphytes

grow above ground by another plant or object

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function of roots

-anchor plants, absorb water and nutrients, can store starch

48

function of root hairs

increase surface area to absorb more water and minerals

49

stem adaptations

???

50

heartwood

-darker, center of stem
-dead cells
-gets thicker every year

51

sapwood

-just under the bark
-living

52

bark

made of cork, cork cambium, and phloem

53

annual rings

the secondary xylem, the growth ring formed in one season

54

transpiration

water loss through stomates

55

cohesion-tension theory

as water evaporates, it pulls on the next water molecule
also brings in needed minerals with the water

56

polarity of water

???

57

leaf adaptations

???

58

simple leaves

single blade

59

compound leaves

blade is divided into leaflets

60

guard cells

surround stomates and regulate gas exchange

61

epidermis

allows protection, gas exchange

62

palisade mesophyll

-tightly packed, column shaped
-sight where most photosynthesis occurs

63

spongy mesophyll

has large air spaces for O2 CO2 and H2O

64

veins

-vascular bundles of xylem and phloem
-parallel or net venation

65

photosynthesis formula

6CO2+ 6H2O --> C6H12O2 +6O2`

66

male cones

-produces spores which develop into pollen grains
-pollen contains sperm cells

67

female cones

-produce spores which develop into ovules
-contain eggs
-2 ovules/ cone scale

68

sepals

-outermost layer
-usually green (can be colored)
-surround and protect flower

69

petals

-colorful
-usually attract pollinaters

70

stamen

-male part
-filament
-anther

71

filament

supports the anther

72

anther

produces pollen grains

73

pistal

-female part
-ovary, style, stigma

74

ovary

enlarged base, contains ovules

75

style

tube between ovary and stigma

76

stigma

-top of pistil
-sticky to catch pollen

77

complete flowers

Has four major parts: petal, stamen, pistal, sepal

78

incomplete flowers

Doesn't have all four major parts

79

cross pollination

increases genetic variation (two different plants)

80

self pollination

no genetic variation (flowers from same plant)

81

animal pollination

-increases efficiency
-produces less pollen, but puts more energy into flower
-uses color, scent, nectar to attract animals

82

wind polination

-less efficient
-most produce more pollen

83

development of fruit from flowers

???

84

types of seed dipersal

wind, water, animals, forcible discharge, gravity

85

structure of seed

seed coat, cotyledons (endosperm), embryo

86

germination

when seed sprouts

87

dormancy

state of reduced metabolism in which growth and development don't occur

88

grafting

joining of two or more plant parts to form s ingle plant

89

cuttings

pieces of a stems and roots that are cut from a plant and used to grow new plants

90

layerings

process of causing roots to form on a stem

91

tissue culture

production of new plants from pieces of tissue placed on a sterile nutrient medium