Flashcards in CH 3 Deck (48):
What is neuroscience?
Study of the relationship between brain and behaivor
What are neurons?
They receive, transmit, and integrate information. (100 billion neurons in our brain)
What are the 3 types of neurons?
Sensory, interneurons, motor
What are sensory neurons?
Make initial contact with the environment
What are interneurons?
They carry the data through the spinal cord and to the brain
What are motor neurons?
They tell your muscles to move
What are dendrites?
Branch looking things that (data receivers)
What is soma?
End of a neuron containing the cell nucleus (process the data)
What is axon?
Long slender projection of a neuron (data transmitters)
What are terminal buttons?
Located at the end of the neuron (send data to other neurons)
What are ions?
Give neurons resting potential (slight negative charge)
What are the two positively charged ions?
Sodium and potassium
What is the negatively charged ion?
What are the two types of action potential?
excitatory and inhibitory
What are excitatory?
Depolarizations (make it less negative, add positive charge)
What is inhibitory?
Hyperpolarization (makes it more negative)
What is glutamete?
A neurotransmitter that affects memory
What is acetylcholine?
A neurotransmitter that affects muscle contractions and memory
What is dophamine?
A neurotransmitter that makes us feel good
What is seratonin?
A neurotransmitter that affects depression, our mood, gastro, and more.
What is GABA?
In charge of relaxation
What are agonists?
Substances that mimic neurotransmitters (cocaine, cigarettes)
What are antagonists?
Substances that block the action of neurotransmitters
What are endorphines?
Natural painkillers in the body
What are the parts of the central nervous system?
Brain and spinal cord
What is the peripheral nervous system?
In charge of moving muscles, regulating internal organs. It consists of the Autonomic and Somatic
The autonomic nervous system is broken down into two parts Parasympathetic and Sympathetic, what are their functions?
Parasympathetic aids with calming and Sympathetic aids with arousing
What is fight or flight and which system is in charge of it?
Psychological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived threat, sympathetic nervous system controls this.
Difference between endocrine and central nervous system.
Endocrine is like a faucet, takes some time to turn on and off, central nervous is like electricity (instantaneous)
What is an electroencephalograph (EEG)?
Measures electrical activity in the brain and tells us how we process information
What is a CT or CAT scan?
It looks at different axis and gives us a 3D view of the brain
What is an MRI?
Magnetic Resonance Imaging, helps us see detailed images of the brain (can see tears)
What is a PET scan?
Person ingests a substance (radioactive isotope). Once it metabolizes it lights up.
3 Main structures of the brain
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain
What is the hindbrain in charge of?
In charge of the most primitive functions, life support (breathing, vomit reflex, etc.)
What is the midbrain in charge of?
In charge of relaying information, coordination, dopamine regulation, and substantia nigra.
What is the forebrain in charge of?
In charge of high level mental functions (thinking, emotions).
What is the limbic system in charge of?
Regulating emotions, mood
What is the amygdala in charge of?
What is the hypocampus in charge of?
Helps us form and store memories, if damaged causes PTSD
What is the hypothalamus in charge of?
Controls hunger, food, body temperature, and sex drive.
Where are the majority of neurons located?
In the cerebral cortex, 80%
Brain consists of how many hemispheres and how many lobes?
2 hemispheres, and 4 lobes (occipital , parietal, frontal, temporal)
What is the occipital lobe in charge of?
What is the parietal lobe in charge of?
Sensations and touch
What is the frontal lobe in charge of?
Higher mental function, what differentiates you between other humans
What is the temporal lobe in charge of?
Hearing and sound