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Flashcards in Ch 3 Deck (45):
1

Threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain genes

Chromosomes

2

Molecule containing genetic information that makes up the chromosomes

DNA

3

Biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; segments of DNA

Genes

4

Generic transfer of characteristics from parents to offspring

Heredity

5

Complete instructions for making organism; consisting of all genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

Genome

6

Every external influence, from prenatal nutrition to social support later in life

Environment

7

Interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (environment) depends on another factor (heredity)

Interaction

8

Study of environment influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change

Epigenetics

9

Fertilized egg; enters a two week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

Zygote

10

Developing human organism from about two weeks after fertilization through the second month

Embryo

11

Developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

Fetus

12

An agent, such as a chemical or virus, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

Teratogen

13

Physical and mental abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, signs include a small, out of proportion head and abnormal facial features

Fetal alcohol syndrome

14

Simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus

Reflex

15

Persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity

Temperament

16

Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical siblings

Identical (monozygotic) twins

17

Twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than nontwin brothers and sisters, but they share a prenatal environment

Fraternal (dizygotic) twins

18

Biological growth processes leading to orderly changes in behavior, mostly independent of experience

Maturation

19

Period early in life when exposure to certain stimuli or experiences is needed for proper development

Critical period

20

All mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

Cognition

21

Concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

Schema

22

Interpreting our new experiences in terms of our existing schemas

Assimilation

23

Adapting our current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information

Accommodation

24

In Piaget's theory the stage (from birth to 2) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities

Sensorimotor stage

25

Awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived

Object permanence

26

In Piaget's theory, the stage (from 2-7) when a child learns to use language but cannot yet perform the mental operations of concrete logic

Preoperational stage

27

The principle that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in shapes

Conversation

28

In Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view

Egocentrism

29

Peoples ideas about their own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict

Theory of mind

30

Disorder that appear in childhood and is marked by significant deficiencies in communication and social interaction, and by rigidly fixated interests and repetitive behaviors

Autism spectrum disorder

31

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (7-11) when children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events

Concrete operational stage

32

In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (12) when people begin to think logically about abstract concepts

Formal operational stage

33

Fear of strangers that infants (8 months) display

Stranger anxiety

34

Emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to their caregiver and showing distress on separation

Attachment

35

According to Erik erikson, sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

Basic trust

36

Transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

Adolescence

37

Period of sexual maturation, when a person becomes capable of reproducing

Puberty

38

Our sense of self; according to erikson, the adolescent's task is to solidify a sense of self by testing and blending various roles

Identity

39

The we aspect of our self concept; part of our answer to who am I that comes from our group memberships

Social identity

40

In erikson's theory, ability to form close, loving relationships; primary development task in early adulthood

Intimacy

41

Period from 18- mid twenties when many in western cultures are no longer adolescent but have not yet achieved full independence as adults

Emerging adulthood

42

End of menstruation. Biological transition a woman experiences from before until after end of menstruation

Menopause

43

Research in which people of different ages are compared

Cross-sectional study

44

Research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

Longitudinal study

45

Culturally preferred timing of social events like marriage, parenthood, and retirement

Social clock