Flashcards in Ch 3 & 4 Deck (151):
An ideology that people should have more involvement in government.
Government controls production; all means of production should be publicly owned.
1. an ideology in which all means of production (factories, farms, etc.) and distribution (railways) were publicly owned. There would be no private or individual ownership of businesses or land
2. a social and economic theory that property and production and distribution of goods and services should be owned by the public, and the labour force organized for the benefit of all. The application of the theory in the Soviet Union, China, and other countries resulted in dictatorships by members of the Communist Parties; forcible confiscation of property, including land; state-owned factories; and suppression of political dissent.
One Big Union
Founded by union leaders from western Canada at the Western Labour Conference in March 1919; it represents all Canadian workers in one organization; its goal was to help workers establish more control of industry and government through peaceful means; the main weapon would be the general strike
a walkout by all employed workers; ex. The Winnipeg General Strike in May 1919, workers from different unions walked off their jobs demanding higher wages, a shorter working week, and the right to collective bargaining
Winnipeg General Strike
(When? How long did it last? What were they demanding? How many people were involved? What services were affected by this? What did union leaders urge strikers to do/not do during the strike?)
●In May 1919, there was a general strike in Winnipeg.
●Lasted 43 days.
●They were demanding higher wages, a shorter working week, and the right to collective bargain.
●30,000 people went out on strike; more than half of those people were not in a union.
●This strike caused chaos in Winnipeg as there were no firefighters, postal workers, telephones, telegraph services, newspapers, streetcars, or deliveries of food.
●Union leaders urged strikers to avoid violent confrontation.
allow the union leadership to negotiate with employers on behalf of the union members; a raise in wages would mean raising every union members’ wages
Citizen's Committee of One Thousand
Formed by business leaders, politicians, and industrialists; the committee saw the union leaders as part of a communist conspiracy to overthrow the government
concern of the various regions of the country with their own local problems; a concern for the affairs of one's own region over those of one's country
(What is it? Leader? # of seats?)
●Led by Arthur Meighen in the 1920s, led by R.B. Bennett in the 1930s.
●Had 50 elected members in the 1921 federal election
●Had 116 elected members in the 1925 federal election
●Won the 1930 federal election
(What is it? Leader? # of seats?)
●Led by William Lyon Mackenzie King in 1919
●Won a minority government in the 1921 federal election with 117 elected members
●Managed to stay in power after the 1925 federal election with 101 elected members and support from the Progressive Party who had 24 elected members.
○The Conservatives actually had more seats than the Liberals, with 116 elected members, but the support from the Progressive Party gave the Liberals more seats overall.
○When the Progressives stopped supporting the Liberals, the Conservatives called for a motion of censure, leading to the King-Byng crisis.
Maritime Rights Movement
●Prominent businesses and political leaders formed it to urge all politicians seeking office to promote policies that would benefit the Maritimes.
●Movement died away, quickly, without accomplishing much
●A political party created by farmers who wanted a new National policy based on free trades and public ownership of the railways
●Farmers were unhappy because neither of the two parties at the time (Liberal/Conservative) addressed their concerns, so they formed a party of their own.
●Created in 1919, led by Thomas Crerar
●Won 64 members in the 1921 federal election; more than the Conservatives but less than the Liberals.
●Despite its initial success, the party did not last very long. It did, however, bring changes to Canada's social policy.
○ie. The Old Age Pension Act in 1927 ~ $240/year
William Lyon Mackenzie King
●Chosen to be leader of the Liberals in 1919.
●Elected as Prime Minister in the 1921 election
●Conciliator; seeked the middle path to offend the least amount of people.
●Reformer; an authority of social and economic issues
○Pushed for greater independence; refused to support Britain with its plan to invade Turkey in 1922.
○Challenged Britain over its influence on Canada's internal policies (King-Byng crisis)
○Participated in the Imperial Conference that led to the Balfour Report
●Replaced Borden as the leader of the Tories (Conservatives)
●A brilliant debater and a long-standing member of Parliament
●Believed in principles over compromise; didn't care who might be offended by his stand on issues.
the governing party has less than 50% of the seats in the Parliament; needs the support of some of the opposition members to pass legislation
●The Liberals had 101 seats, the Conservatives had 116 seats, and the Progressives had 24 seats following the 1925 election.
●The Liberals and the Progressives teamed together, which allowed the Liberals to stay in power.
●The Liberals lost support of the Progressives, because of a liquor-smuggling scandal.
●The Conservatives called for a motion of censure (a vote of strong disapproval) against King's government. If it had passed, King would have to resign as prime minister.
●King asked the GG, Viscount Byng, to call an election-- the GG refused, at first, but eventually was forced to agree.
●King was angry; he thought that it was unfair and undemocratic for an appointed official of Britain to refuse the advice of an elected Prime Minister.
●No GG has acted against the wishes of an elected PM since then.
●Lord Balfour recommended that Canada should be an autonomous community within the British Empire and be equal in status.
●Became law in 1931 when the Statute of Westminster was passed; the statute formally turned the British Empire into the British Commonwealth.
○This made Canada a country equal in status with Britain, entitled to make its own laws.
The power to govern oneself and make one's own decisions.
●The procedure for changing the Constitution.
●Because there was no amending formula in 1931, when Canada became a country equal in status to Britain, the BNA act remained in effect.
●The amending formula for the Constitution that we have now is that 7/10 provinces with 50% of the population must agree to the change.
Statue of Westminster
●Based on the Balfour Report
●Passed in 1931 by the British Government
●Turned the British Empire into the British Commonwealth
Factories, offices, or other operations set up in Canada but owned or controlled by US or other foreign companies
●The act of making, selling, or distributing an illegal product.
●Bootlegging was very common when Prohibition was in effect.
○People would obtain alcohol illegally
●Canadians also smuggled alcohol into the United States during the time period in which alcohol was illegal in the US but not in Canada.
○This act was also known as rum-running and was very profitable.
A direct vote by electors on an issue of public importance. The outcome of the vote may not be binding on the government
The process by which an area changes from rural to urban
The Persons Case
● The Persons Case of 1929 brought the issue of female political participation to a head.
○ Emily Murphy, a well known suffragist, was appointed a magistrate in Alberta. Her position was challenged on the basis that only “persons” could hold this office under the BNA Act, and that women were not “persons” in the eye of the law
○ The Supreme Court of Alberta ruled that Murphy had the right to be a judge
○ On April 1928, the Supreme Court of Canada decided that women were not “persons” under the Constitution
○ Emily Murphy and her associates, nicknamed the Famous Five, appealed to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain who declared its support on October 18, 1929 for the women.
1. a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting conventional standards of behavior.
2. a look that dominated women's fashion; bobbed hair, hemlines above the knees, silk stockings, and dresses that promoted the flat chested look; outraged the older generation
A fast-paced dance, with elaborate arm movements, that became a craze in the United States during the 1920s.
●The new style of life in the 1920s, caused by the upswing in economy.
●People bought cars and radios and went to the movies
●USA trends spread to Canada (ie. swallowing live goldfish and six-day bicycle races)
●More tourism from the USA
○Men ~ Straw hats, double-breasted suits, bell-bottom pants, bow ties, slicked-down hair
○Women ~ "flapper" look; bobbed hair, shorter dresses in which promoted the flat-chested look, silk stockings
Group of Seven
Painters who were in tune with the new post-war national confidence; rather than imitate realistic classical styles, members of the group sought to interpret Canada's rugged landscape as they saw it, using broad, bold strokes and brilliant colours. They were criticized, at first, but gained acceptance by the end of the 1920s.
●A well-known painter in the Pacific coast
●Painted scenes of West Coast forests and Aboriginal life
●Gained little recognition at first, but was featured in the National Museum in Ottawa
●She was moved by the work of the Group of Seven
●Won a Governor-General's Literary Award
An important cultural ceremony among certain peoples of the Pacific coast; at this ceremony, births, deaths, marriages, and other significant events were recorded in an oral tradition; it was a carefully planned event that involved families and even entire village; it was also a way of establishing status in tribes
Lands taken from reserves without consent of the Aboriginal peoples
Claims by Aboriginal people to lands that their ancestors inhabited
Ku Klux Klan
●A secret fraternity founded in the United States.
●Promoted racial and religious hatred against non-Protestants and non-whites.
●In the 1920s, they established short-lived local branches in Canada.
Stock Market Crash
On October 29, 1929, the New York Stock Exchange collapsed. The prices of all stocks fell quickly. It marked a shift from the prosperity of the 1920s to the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Great Depression
●1929 ~ 1939
●A period of severe economic and social hardship, massive unemployment, and terrible suffering.
●The stock market crash contributed to the severity of the Depression, but did not cause it. There were several reasons for the Depression.
○Wheat prices fell; wheat farmers depended on foreign markets, but other countries were producing wheat
○Overproduction; more goods were being produced than sold. Manufacturers eventually began to cut back on production which led to layoffs, which led to less income, which led to less spending.
○High tariffs; United States imposed high tariffs on foreign goods coming into the country, with the intentions of protecting the US domestic market. This led to other countries raising their own tariffs in response and the high taxes caused a slowdown in world trade as opportunities for export shrank.
○WWI; Germany was unable to meet its financial obligations under the 1919 peace agreement. Germany's economy was in ruins, and the reparations stunted its ability to recover. France and Great Britain were counting on Germany to pay back their own war debts owed to the US. The US was demanding repayment of these loans.
Buying shares with only a 10% down payment.
A system using tariffs to raise prices of imported goods in order to protect domestic producers
Tax imposed on imported goods or services
Set up to help the hungry and homeless during depression. Place where food is offered for free or at a lower price for the hungry.
● Money, food, housing, or other to help those in poverty or need
● Welfare that was handed out to families in the form of food vouchers
● Single men were expected to work in relief camps
Gov relief payments given to those who had no alternate source of income. unemployment or welfare benefit.
"riding the rods"
To hitch a ride on a freight train
slums on the outskirts of many cities
area of land where vegetation and soil has been reduced to dust and eroded because of droughts or unsuitable farming practices
● Leader of the Liberal Party and Prime Minister of Canada from 1921-1930
● Unprepared to deal with a crisis on the scale of the Depression
● He believed the situation was temporary and that, in time, the economy would recover
● King believed this was the responsibility of municipal and provincial governments
His impulsive remark "a five-cent piece" cost him the election in 1930 against Conservatives leader R.B. Bennett
● Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of Canada from 1930-1935
● Was not in favour of government relief
● His government gave the provinces $20 million for work-creation programs
● Raised tariffs by 50% to protect Canadian industries
- protected Canadian businesses but other nations also erected trade barriers against Canada
● Became a target for people's frustration and anger
● His government banned the Communist Party and arrested several of its leaders
- Afraid that some frustrated men would come under the influence of the Communist Party
● Created work camps for unemployed, single men
On to Ottawa Trek
● In 1935, 1000+ men left work camps in the interior of B.C. to protest their working conditions
● Crowded in and on top of the freight trains picking up supporters along the way
● They were stopped by the RCMP in Regina and only the leaders were allowed to proceed to Ottawa
● Bennett attacked the leaders as radicals and troublemakers
● Led to the Regina riot in which the RCMP were ordered to clear all the trekkers
- one man was killed, many were injured, and 130 men were arrested
● Gov policy of not interfering in the working of the market economy by regulations or economic policies
● Keeping government involvement in the economy to a minimum
●Introduced by Roosevelt
●Created numerous public work programs for the unemployed and for farmers
●Introduced Social Security Act
○Old age pension for workers 65 years of age and older
○Financial assistance for dependent mothers and children
●Resulted in the U.S. federal government spending billions of dollars to get the economy working again.
●Did not pull the United States out of the Depression, but helped millions to survive and gave hope for the future.
●Some people believed that the New Deal was a waste of taxpayer money, caused a more intrusive government, higher taxes, and unnecessary restrictions on business activities.
●BC Premier Dufferin Pattullo promised voters a "Little New Deal" based on the New Deal.
○Shorten the week day
○Increase minimum wage
○Increase relief payments by 20%
○Public works projects were launched (ie. Fraser River bridge)
○Projects did not last long, however, because the federal government challenged his authority to introduce programs that were considered to be in the federal domain.
Places where young men had to work. Made to provide food, shelter, clothing, and medical care to those that could not afford it. Men were made to do labour there for 20 cents a day. Foods and living conditions were horrible
Cooperative Commonwealth Federation. A political party. Appealed to a wide variety of canadians dissatisfied with the gov's reaction to the Great Depression. Included farmers, labourers, socialists, intellectuals, discontented liberals. Lead by J.S. Woodsworth. It was the forerunner of the NDP
● Emerged in 1935
● Led by "Bible Bill" William Aberhart
● Succeeded by Ernest Manning and Harry Strom
● Believed capitalism was wasteful and the government should release money hoarded by banks into the economy so that people could spend it
● Promised each citizen a "basic dividend" of twenty-five dollars a month to buy necessities
● Many people from Alberta supported it because the Depression had devastated their economy the worst and they resented the power and control of the banks in Central Canada
Bible Bill Aberhart
● Leader of the Social Credit Party
● Succeeded by Ernest Manning and Harry Strom
● Emerged in 1936
● Led by Maurice Duplessis
● French-Canadian nationalist party
● Blamed Quebec's problems on the English minority who controlled the province's wealth
● Supported economic/social reforms but did not actually improve anything
● Supported by the Roman Catholic Church and the rural voters
● Established that the federal government have more control over taxation
● Grants given to the poorer provinces to ensure that every province was able to offer its citizens the same level of services
● Tensions between federal and provincial governments escalated
● Emerged in 1934
● Brought a welcome distraction from the grim realities of the Depression
● Born in Corbeil, northern Ontario, they quickly became an international sensation
● When their poverty-stricken parents were judged incapable of looking after the "miracle babies", the five girls were taken into the care of the Ontario government
● The Dionne girls were put on display to the public, and over three million people visited specially built hospitals where they were raised
● Canadian figure who achieved popularity and world fame
●Pretended to be a Canadian Aboriginal, but was actually an Englishman named Archie Belaney.
● He devoted the latter part of his life to the preservation of the northern Canadian forests and the disappearing beaver
● His writings and speaking tours promoting conservation made him the most famous Canadian of his day
● His books, such as The Adventures of Sajo and Her Beaver People, became best-sellers
● He made movies, and dined with prime ministers and royalty
● Every aspect of people's lives controlled by the Communist Party
● The state of Soviet Union
● An undemocratic state in which the government demands total obedience from citizens and controls all aspects of society
● Ruthless dictator who ruled his country through intimidation and fear
● Leader of the German National Socialist party, or Nazi Party
Form of authoritarian gove set up in Italy and Germany before WW2. Opposed to democracy, very nationalistic, rely on military to maintain absolute control, control all media and use it to promote the ideas of that state.
Rise in prices of goods and services that increase the cost of living. Triggers the demand for a rise in wages.
●a supposedly "pure" race of northern Europeans.
●Nazi party believed that Germans were a "master race" composed of Aryans
● Policy of Western democracies in response to Germany's aggression throughout the 1930s
● The granting of concession (grant of rights) in order to maintain peace.
Also known as crystal night. Nazi mobs attacked Jewish businesses across Germany. Sidewalks were covered in glass from windows given the attack that name.
Belief that one's country should keep separate from the politics/disputes of other countries.
Large geographic location in Northeast Asia/China. Japan wanted to invade it and did so in 1931.
German name to refer to the north, southwest, west part of Czechoslovakia inhabited by german speakers.
Historical nation in present day Eritrea and Northeastern part of Ethiopia. Mussolini wanted to invade it.
What was the significance of the Persons Case?
● It was a milestone for women’s equality, as they were supported by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in Britain.
○ They agreed that “persons” should include women, clarifying the definition
● Brought to light the issue of women not being a person; the Supreme Court of Canada
believed that women were not persons under the Constitution.
● Introduced women to parliament
● Raised awareness about women’s rights
What conditions were veterans in after returning from WWI?
Canadian soldiers returned to Canada early in 1919 only to find that there were no steady pensions for veterans, no special medical services for those wounded in the war, and above all, few jobs
What conditions were workers in after WWI?
During the war, labour unions had reluctantly agreed to reduced pay as their patriotic duty to the war effort. After the war, the cost of goods soared, and workers suffered. Many families found their wages no longer covered the cost of rent and food
What did the workers do to get better condition? What are some examples of it?
● Workers' demands for higher wages, better working conditions, and the right to join unions resulted in numerous strikes in Canada
● One significant example was the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919.
What is the labour war and what caused it?
● The coal and steel workers on Cape Breton Island were hit hard by the closing of wartime industries after the war
- many workers lost their jobs or were forced to accept lower wages
● Cape Breton depended on a single employer for jobs, the British Empire Steel Corporation
- Unemployment and long strikes meant economic hardship for everyone in these single-industry communities
● for four years, the union and the steel corporation confronted each other in what became known as the labour wars
● when the strikes turned violent, the company called in the provincial police and federal troops to break them up
● in 1926, a Royal Commission criticized the labour practices of the British Empire Steel Corporation, but the commission's findings did little to ease the suffering and poverty in the Maritimes
What do the western unions believe?
● Western union leaders were more socialist in their policies than union leaders on the East Coast, believing ordinary people should have more involvement in government
● Some western union leaders were influenced by the 1917 revolution in Russia, where the Bolsheviks had set up a communist regime
● At the Western Labour Conference in March 1919, union leaders from western Canada succeeded in founding One Big Union (OBU), which would represent all Canadian workers in one organization
- the OBU's goal was to help workers establish more control of industry and government through peaceful means
- the main weapon would be the general strike, a walkout by all employed workers
What did the voters demand in the Winnipeg General Strike?
● Workers demanded higher wages, a shorter working week, and the right to collective bargaining
● The Winnipeg Trades and Labour Council oted for a general strike in support of these principles
Who opposed the Winnipeg General strikers and what did they do?
● Business leaders, politicians, and industrialists formed the Citizens' Committee of One Thousand
● The committee saw the union leaders as part of a communist conspiracy to overthrow the government
● The federal government, fearing that this kind of disruption and protest could spread to other cities, decided to intervene
- The Immigration Act was amended to allow foreign-born union leaders to be deported
- The mayor of Winnipeg appointed special police, fired many civic workers, and had the strike leaders arrested
What is Bloody Saturday?
● On June 21, strikers held a parade to protest the mayor's actions
● The parade turned violent when the Royal Northwest Mounted Police and special police, armed with clubs and pistols, charged into the crowd
● The resulting clash became known as Bloody Saturday
● One striker died, thirty were injured, and scores were arrested
● Defeated, the strikers returned to work--the protest had lasted forty-three days
What did the Winnipeg General Strike achieve?
In the short run
● many leaders were convicted of conspiracy to over throw the government and served sentences
● many workers were not rehired; other were taken back only if they signed contracts vowing not to join a union
● distrust and divisions between the working class and businesses grew deeper
In the long run
● A Royal Commission set up to examine the strike found that the workers' grievances were valid
● gradually, much of what they fought for was achieved
● some of thoses involved in the strike took up political postions in which they could work towards social reform
- J.S. Woodsworth founded the CCP
What were the reasons for the rise of the Maritime Rights Movement?
● During the 1920s, the maritime provinces found their influence in national politics was declining
- The population in the Maritimes was small, which meant this region had fewer seats in Parliament
● Many businesses and banks were moving to Ontario and Quebec
● Others were suffering because their products were no longer in demand: oil was gradually replacing coal as the most used fuel for heating and power; the maritime provinces had plenty of coal but no oil
● Prominent business and political leaders formed the Maritime Rights Movement, which urged all politicians seeking office to promote policies that would benefit the Maritimes
● The movement died away soon, without having accomplished much
What were the reasons for the rise of the Progressive Party?
● The farmers, particularly those in the Prairies, were frustrated by the National Policy, in place since 1878
- Under the National Policy, tariffs or duties were placed on foreign goods imported into Canada--tariffs protected Canadian industries by making foreign goods so expensive that Canadians would choose to buy goods produced in Canada
● Western farmers felt alienated by this policy because their agricultural products were sold on the open world market
● Farmers wanted free trade, which would abolish tariffs and allow farmers to buy cheaper, U.S.made machinery
● They also wanted lower freight rates and storage fees. When neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives met their demands, farmers formed their own political parties
● By the early 1920s, Ontario and the prairie provinces had all elected members of United Farmers’ Parties to their legislatures
● In 1919, the federal Progressive Party was created, led by Thomas Crerar, a former minister of agriculture in Robert Borden’s Union Government
● The Progressive Party wanted a new National Policy based on free trade and public ownership of the railways.
What was the significance of the Old Age Pension Act?
● The Old Age Pension Act was passed in 1927
● The basic pension was not generous, just $240 per year
● Nevertheless, the act was an acknowledgement that government had a role to play in providing a network of social services for its citizens.
How did Prime Minister Machenzie King push for greater Canada's independence?
● In 1922, King refused to support Britain when it announced plans to invade Turkey
● in 1923, he insisted that Canada be allowed to sign an international treaty without the signature of a British representative
● In 1926, he publicly challenged Britain over its influence on Canada's internal politics in what became known as the King-Byng crisis
● in 1926, he participated in the Imperial Conference that led to the Balfour Report
Descibe the King-Byng Crisis.
● Following the 1925 election, the Conservatives won more seats than the Liberals
- it meant that the Liberals were forced to seek the support of the Progressive Party in order to stay in power
● In 1926, the Liberals lost the support of the Progressive Party as a result of a liquor-smuggling scandal in the Customs Department
● The Conservatives called for a motion of censure--a vote of strong disapproval--against King's government
- If the motion of censure had passed, King would have had to resign as prime minister
● King immediately asked Governor General Viscount Byng to call another election
● Byng refused King's request and was eventually forced to call an election
● During the campaign, King appealed to nationalist sentiments by claiming it was undemocratic for an official appointed by Britain to refuse to take the advice of the pm
● King won the election
● No governor general since has acted against the wishes of an elected prime minister
What is the Balfour Report and what is the significance of it?
● At the Imperial Conference of 1926, the dominions of the British Empire requested formal recognition of their autonomy
● A special committee under the leadership of Lord Balfour, a respected British politician, examined the request
- its findings, published as the Balfour Report, supported the dominions' position
● The recommendations of the Balfour Report became law in 1931, when the Statute of Westminster was passed by the British government
● This statute formally turned the British Empire into the British Commonwealth
- Canada was now a country equal in status with Britain, entitled to make its own laws
● There were two remaining restrictions on Canada's independence
- Canada's constitution, the BNA Act, remained in Britain because the Canadian governments could not agree on an amending formula
- The judicial court of appeal for Canadians resided in Britain until 1949
What became important in Canadian economy in mid-1920s?
● The demand for Canadian pulp and paper increased, and new mills were built in several provinces
● Mining also boomed
- record amounts of lead, zinc, silver, and copper were produced for export
● The expansion of the forest and mining industries increased demand for hydroelectric power
●Wheat remained an important export for Canada
What did most US investors set up in Canada and why?
● Most US investors preferred to set up branch plants--businesses owned and controlled by companies in the US, but which operated in Canada
● It avoided having to pay Canadian tariffs
Who controled the Canadian auto indusry by the end of the 1920s?
The Canadian auto industry had been taken over by the "Big Three" US automobile companies--General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler
Who benefited from US investments in Canada?
The US extracted or harvested raw materials (primary industries), but these materials were all transported to the US for processing and manufacturing (secondary industries). It was the US economy that benefited most from this development
What ended prohibition in Canada?
A series of plebiscites (otes on a public issue)
What led to urbanization?
● Canada's growing manufacturing sector brought more and more people to the cities in search of work in factories
● Farms were becoming more mechanized, which meant fewer family members and workers were needed to run the farms
Where did most affluent families prefer to live and why?
● More affluent families moved to tree-lined residential areas
● Automobiles and streetcars made it feasible for them to do so, since they could get from their homes to the business district without difficulty
● The city centre was crowded and unsanitary, where the poor and working-class people live
Who was the first woman elected to the House of Commons?
What was the difference between US and British investment in Canada?
British lent money to Canadian businesses while US set up branch plants in Canada
What was the fashion for men in 1920s?
For men, straw hats, form-fitting double-breasted suits, bell-bottom pants, bow ties, and slicked-down hair (in imitation of screen idols such as Rudolph Valentino) were popular
What dominated women's fashion and what is it like?
The "flapper" look dominated women's fashion. "Bobbed" hair, hemlines above the knees, silk stockings, and dresses that promoted the flat-chested look
What are "bush pilots"?
Many veteran pilots became "bush pilots" who flew geologists and prospectors into remote areas to explore mining opportunities
What are some new technologies in 1920s?
● Electric washing machines
● Neon signs
● Bobby pins
● Radio tube
● Depth sounder
What were the two great flaws in Canada's prosperity in the 1920s? What happened as a result?
●Canadian businesses were producing too many goods (especially luxury items) for the small Canadian market.
○Canadians did not need all of the goods being produced.
●Canada was very dependant on the world economy because of our production of raw materials.
○Europe had no money to purchase these goods.
●Businesses began to close, workers were laid off, shareholders began to sell stocks, prices fell rapidly, the US government increased tariffs to protect American businesses.
When did American and Canadian stock markets crash?
In October 29, 1929.
What happened in October 1929? What did it lead to?
The American and Canadian stock markets crashed. This led to the worst economic crisis in world history: The Great Depression.
Who won the election in 1930? Why?
RB Bennett and the Conservative Party win the election because voters lost faith in the Liberal Party.
What was the effect of the 1917 Communist (Bolshevik) Revolution in Russia on Canada?
Some western union leaders were influenced by the 1917 revolution in Russia and founded One Big Union (OBU), which would represent all Canadian workers in one organization. The OBU’s goal was to help workers establish more control of industry and government through peaceful means. The main weapon would be the general strike.
How did the federal government try to assimilate the Aboriginal Nations in 1920s?
● Many young Aboriginal students were sent to Residential schools
● Villages were instructed by the government to replace traditional or family leaders with graduates of residential schools
What are the three issues that the Aboriginal people in BC challenged the federal and proncial governments in 1920s?
● Potlatch ceremony
● Cut-off lands
● Aboriginal title
What is the potlatch?
● The potlatch was an important cultural ceremony among certain peoples of the Pacific coast
● At this ceremony, births, deaths, marriages, and other significant events were recorded in an oral tradition
● The potlatch was a carefully planned event that involved families and even entire villages
● It was also a way of establishing status in tribes
What is the problem with potlatch?
● Missionaries and the government saw potlatch as an obstacle to assimilation, and the practice was forbidden in 1884
● The government began to enforce the ban vigorously only after WWI
- When the Kwagiulth people decided to hold several potlatch ceremonies in 1920, the provincial government arrested the chiefs responsible, and many were sentenced to jail terms
What is the issue with Aboriginal titles?
● Only a few First Nations on vancouver Island had negotiated land treaties--most of the land in the province had not been signed away to the government
● The federal government had been taking land, known as cut-off lands, from reserves without the consent of the Aboriginal bands involved
● Aboriginal leaders wanted their claims to the land recognized by the federal government
- Joe Capilano presented a land claim petition to King Edward VII
- the Allied Tribes of BC appealed the federal government's actions and claimed the removal of this land was contrary to the Indian Act, which regulated relations between the federal government and the Aboriginal peoples
● the Federal government responded by changing the Indian Act so that Aboriginal consent was not required for the transfer of reserve lands
● In 1927, the Department of Indian Affairs also stated that money spent on Aboriginal people had compensated them for the land they lost
● The Indian Act was amended to forbid the raising or acceptance of money to pursue land claims
What are some examples of discrimination against African-Canadians in 1920s?
● In Nova Scotia, the Education Act of 1918 provided for separate schools for "blacks" and "Europeans", a policy that remained unchanged until 1954
● In 1921, the Superior Court of Quebec ruled in favour of racially segregated seating in Montreal theatres
● In 1929, a black delegation to a World Baptist Convention in Toronto was denied hotel rooms
What are some examples of toleration towards African-Canadians in 1920s?
● In 1924, Edmonton City Council refused to support an attempt to ban African-Canadians from public parks and swimming pools
● In 1919, the Brotherhood of Railway Workers accepted black porters as members, becoming the first Canadian union to abolish racial discrimination
What groups of Canadians didn't want restrictios on immigration and why?
Farmers, railway owners, and some other businesses welcomed immigrants because they would work for low wages in jobs that Canadian workers didn't want
What were the causes of the Depression?
● Canada's dependency on US economy
● Stock market crash
● Tariff protectionism
● Economic dependency on export
What are tariffs meant to do and what did they actually do?
● Tariffs were meant to protect the domestic market by making foreign items more expensive
● The protectionism had harmful effects, as other countries imposed their own tariffs in response to the United States' actions
- Tariffs caused a slowdown in world trade as opportunities for export shrank
What were the two major exports industries in Canadian economy?
● Wheat from the prairie provinces
● Newsprint from BC, Ontario, and Quebec
What are "pogey" and what did people have to do to get them?
● "Pogey" are government relief payments given to those who had no alternative source of income
● People had to wait in line for hours and then publicly declare their financial failure
● People also had to swear that they did not own anything of value and prove that they were being evicted from their home
● If the applicants met these requirements, they received vouchers that could be used to buy food
- The vouchers were never enough to cover expenses, and obtaining them was always a humiliating experience
How did private charities help the poors?
● Private charities provided used clothing and meals
● Soup kitchens were set up to help the hungry and homeless
Why was the Prairies hit the worst by the Depression and how did the government try to help?
● The collapse of the wheat market had left families struggling to survive
● The Prairies were hit by a disastrous drought that started in 1928 and lasted almost eight years
● In 1930, the winds began; by mid-spring of 1931, there were almost constant dust storms
- Millions of hectares of fertile topsoil blew away
● The semi-arid area in southern Alberta and Saskatchewan, known as Palliser's Triangle, was especially badly hit
● A plague of grasshoppers descended on the Prairies
● In 1935, the federal government passed the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration Act, which helped farmers build irrigation systems and reservoirs
- But by this time, drought and poverty had forced many families to leave their farms and move elsewhere
What did Prime Minister Bennett do to help the Depression?
● His government gave the provinces $20 million for work-creation programs
● Bennett raised tariffs by 50% to protect Canadian industries
- This increase in tariffs did provide protection for some Canadian businesses
- However, other nations also erected trade barriers against Canada
● The federal government also decided to create work camps for unemployed, single men
What was the condition in work camps?
● Work camps were usually located deep in the woods, so the men were completely isolated
● Men worked on projects such as building roads, clearing land, and digging drainage ditches
● Men were paid twenty cents a day and given room and board
● The food was terrible, and the bunks were often bug-infested
● Over 170000 men spent some time in these camps
What Union started the On-to-Ottawa Trek?
The Relief Camp Workers Union
What is the National Employment Commission and what did it find?
● It's a commission set up by King to examine the state of unemployment in Canada in 1936
● It found that unemployment was a national problem, and it recommended the federal government spend millions of dollars on job creation and training programs
What was the CCF?
●Cooperative Commonwealth Federation
●Leader: J.S. Woodsworth
- the Regina Manifesto
- support for public ownership of key industries
- support for social programs to assist people in need of money: the elderly, the unemployed, the homeless, the sick, and the other citizens unable to support themselves
- spend more money on public works in order to create employment
- Canadians who were dissatisfied with the government’s response to the Depression (farmers, labourers, socialists, intellectuals)
- Discontented Liberals
What was the Social Credit Party?
●Leader: William Aberhart
- believed capitalism was wasteful
- release money hoarded by banks into the economy so that people could spend it
- promised each citizen a “basic dividend” of twenty-five dollars a month to buy necessities
- many people from Alberta because the Depression had devastated their economy and they resented the power and control of the banks in Central Canada
What was the Union Nationale Party?
●Leader: Maurice Duplessis
- blamed Quebec’s problems on the English minority
- supported economic/social reform (but did not actually improve anything)
- Roman Catholic Church
- rural voters
Why was the depression so severe in Canada?
●Canada's economy depended mainly on the export of primary resources such as wheat (prairies) and newsprint (in BC, Ontario, etc...)
○As international markets reduced their demand for these products, people in Canada’s wheat and paper industries lost their jobs
●Close ties to the US economy hit hard since they were Canada's biggest investor and trading partner.
○Factories/businesses over, people evicted, difficult relief, economic hardships
How were immigrants treated during the depression?
●Immigrants viewed with hostility due to competition of jobs
○Anti semitism: prejudice against Jews
○Many forbid the hiring of immigrants, clubs/organizations were closed to them as well
●10,000 were deported during the first half of the depression
○In 1931 immigration was stopped all together
●Many begged, were poor, starved, and even were discriminated when receiving relief
○Immigrants received half of the amount of relief that a white man did
What impulsive remark/comment did Prime Minister King make that cost him the election in 1930? Who became the new Prime Minister in 1930?
●He said that he would not contribute “a five-cent piece” to a Tory provincial government
○He believed the depression was temporary and this was the responsibility of municipal and provincial governments
○He failed to understand that unemployment was a major issue for Canadian voters
●R.B Bennett, leader of the Conservatives, became the new Prime Minister in 1930.
What was a relief camp?
●Work camps for unemployed, single men
●They were usually located deep in the woods
●Men worked in isolation
●Jobs included building roads, clearing land, and digging drainage ditches
●Men were paid 20 cents a day for their work and given room and board.
●Low pay in the middle of nowhere to keep them out of trouble and less chances of revolution/revolt.
●Food was terrible
●Bunks were often bug-infested
●Over 170,000 men spent some time in these camps
Explain the concept of equlization payments and how this leads to federal/provincial tensions.
●Federal government gets more control over taxation and gives poorer provinces grants
○This meant that tax money from wealthier provinces would go towards supporting the poorer provinces.
●The wealthier provinces did not like the idea because they did not want their tax dollars going to other provinces
○The provinces also felt that many of the Commission’s recommendations would mean a loss of provincial power
●Most of the Commission’s recommendations ended up either pushed aside indefinitely or adopted many years later
How did the depression affect Canadian families?
●Many families were forced to move
●School wasn't as much of a priority, a luxury
●People were poor; they lived in poverty
○thousands existed on “pogey”--government relief payments given to those who had no alternative source of income
●People lost their jobs
●Women were viewed as job competition
What did Canadians do to escape the Depression?
●Many Canadians, especially prairie farmers, moved away
●Radio, magazines, movies
●They committed suicide
●They looked towards to federal government, hoping to get help
○They voted King out, just to find Bennett equally unfavourable of government relief
○Some joined the Communist Party while others were involved in the On-to-Ottawa Trek
What seemed to be the government's attitude towards those people who had lost their jobs? Why do you think this was the case? Do you think this attitude still exists today towards the unemployed?
●The prime ministers were not concerned with government relief and aiding the citizens during the hardship
○Conditions were horrible
○Vouchers were not enough to cover the necessities
●The prime ministers did not feel the severity of the depression and the urgency for help
○King thought it was a temporary situation and the economy would come back up soon
○Neither King nor Bennett favoured relief programs
●This unconcerned attitude is not as common today as many welfare programs are in place to help with the unemployed, disabled, poor people, and seniors
What was the condition for most European countries in 1930s?
● The economies of most European countries never recovered from WWI and the Depression made matters even worse
● Unemployment was high
● Food was often scarce
● Lawlessness become a major problem
Who took over the Soviet Union in 1930s and what did he do?
● Josef Stalin took over as leader of the Communist Party
● He was a ruthless and cruel leader whose agricultural and economic policies caused the death of millions of Soviet workers
● Under his leadership, the USSR became a totalitarian state, with every aspect of people's lives controlled by the COmmunist Party
Who took over Italy and what did he do?
● Benito Mussolini, or Il Duce (the leader) came to power in 1922
● Mussolini created a fascist government that was opposed to democracy , extremely nationalistic, and rely on military and police power to maintain absolute control
What did Germany do to pay back the reparations? What did it lead to?
● The government had begun printing large amounts of money in the early 1920s
● The value of the German currency declined and inflation spiralled
● German money became worth less and less, while the prices of basic goods increased rapidly
Who took over Germany and what did he do?
● Adolf Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in January 1933
● By March, his party had won control of the German parliament
● The Nazi government defied the terms of the Treaty of Versailles by stopping all reparation payments
● It started a massive expansion of the armed forces
● Hitler subsidized farmers to help rebuild their farms, and poured money into public projects such as the building of the Autobahn
● Unemployment went down and the economy started to improve
● The Nazies abolished all other political parties and trade unions in the country
What groups did the Nazis persecuted and why?
● Non-Aryans (Jews, Roma--Gypsies, Slavs) were considered to be inferior
- Only the "master race", composed of Aryans, were a supposedly "pure" race of northern Europeans
● People with mental or physical disabilities were despised because they destroyed the image of the "master race"
● Communists and homosexuals were also targeted
What is the Kristallnacht?
● On November 9, 1938, Nazi mobs attacked Jewish businesses across Germany
● A notable occasion highlighting Nazis' racism
Where and why did Japan invade China?
● In 1931, Japan invaded the Chinese industrial province of Manchuria
● Manchuria was rich in gold, iron, coal, petroleum and human
What did the League of Nations do after Japan invaded China? What was Japan's response?
● The League of Nations condemned Japan's action and tried to negotiate
● Japan responded by withdrawing its membership from the League
Where did Italy invade and what did the League of Nations do?
● In the spring of 1935, Italy attacked Abyssinia (now Ethiopia)
- It was one of the few independent African nations and they fought hard against the Italian invasion
● The League of Nations immediately voted to impose trade sanctions against Italy
● Oil, a crucial import for Italy, however, was not included in the sanctions
- Italy had no oil of its own, and had it been unable to import oil, its war machine would have run down very quickly
● France and Great Britain were reluctant to punish Italy because they wanted Italy's support in case of a new war with Germany
Where did Germany invade before WWII?
● In 1936, Hitler ordered his troops into the Rhineland, an area along Germany's western border that was demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles
● In March 1938, Hitler took over neighbouring Austria, a German-speaking country
● He then demanded the right to take over the Sudetenland, the German-speaking region in western Czechoslovakia
● In March 1939, Hitler ignored his pledge to Britain and France and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia
● In 1939, Hitler invaded Poland and started WWII
What did the League of Nations do in response to Germany's aggression before WWII?
● Throughout the 1930s, Western democracies adopted a policy of appeasement in response to Germany's aggression
- Because no one wanted to fight another war, many leaders were willing to make concessions to Hitler to maintain peace
● In September 1938, at a conference in Munich, Britain and France agreed to the demand of taking over Sudetenland; in turn, Hitler pledged that this would be his last territorial claim
- Hitler did not keep his promise
What happened in Spain before WWII?
● In 1936, General Francisco Franco and his Falange (fascist) followers led an attack on Spain's government
● The result was a civil war between the elected socialist government and the rebel forces of General Franco
● Franco, with military support from Hitler and Mussolini, won the war and became the ruler of Spain
● The democratic governments around the world chose not to get involved in the conflict, although socialist supporters from several countries went to Spain to join in the fight against Franco and fascism
● Canadian volunteers, called the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion (the Mac-Paps), numbered over 1200
- One of the volunteers was Dr. Norman Bethune, a surgeon and political activist from Ontario
Why didn't Hitler attack Poland in the beginning and what led Hitler to attack Poland?
● Hitler had been making warlike speeches against Poland for some months
- He wanted to regain an area of Poland that had been taken away from Germany in the peace agreement
● However, if Germany invaded Poland, it was likely that the Soviet Union would regard Germany's actions as a threat to its own security and declare war on Germany
● In August 1939, Hitler concluded a non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union
- Both countries pledged not to fight each other if one of them went to war, and they agreed to divide Poland between them
● On September 1, 1939, German troops invaded Poland, and bitter fighting followed
When did Britian and France declare war on Germany and why?
● Britain and France ordered Germany out of Poland by September 3, 1939
● When Germany ignored this deadline, Britain and France declared war on Germany
What was Canada's response to the events of the 1930s and why?
● Many Canadians, including Prime Minister Mackenzie King, remained isolationists, uninterested in affairs outside their borders
● Some believed the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh
● Others, remembering the 60,000 Canadians who had died in WWI, adopted a pacifist position
Why did Canada refuse to accept Jewish refugees?
● King saw no gain for accepting Jewish refugees and they might create an internal problem in an effort to meet an international one
● Secretary of State, Pierre Rinfret blamed political refugees for unemployment problems
1. union, especially the political union of Austria with Germany in 1938.
2. the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany in March 1938.