Ch 3 Cell structure and genetic control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 3 Cell structure and genetic control Deck (18):
1

cell

cell membrane
cytoplasm (cytosol + organelles)
nucleus

2

plasma membrane

protein inbedded in pm
phospholipid bilayer with cholesterol molecules
cholesterol in membrane thought to regulate temperature, cold enviorment- kick FA apart prevent coagulation. hot enviornment- FA tail wave around

3

ECM

fibers + ground substance
-elastic- recoid
-collagen- strength

ground sub = proteins + carbs. GAGs- mostly hydrophillic

4

cytoplasm

cystosol + organelles

5

cytoskeletan

fx: support and/or transport
3 types
1. microtubules- protein straws made and sent out across the cell, made of TUBULIN. Motor protiens KINESIN and DYNEINS walk along tubulin. CENTRIOLES organize microtubules in a cell
2. microfilaments- long fibers of ACTIN, motor protien called MYOSIN
3. intermediate filaments- made of globular proteins KERATIN (non-polar, will interact with other non-polar)

6

Lysosomes

vesicle of hydrolytic enzymes
fx: hydrolyze polymers

7

Peroxisomes

vesicle of oxidative enzymes
fx: oxidize lipid soluable stuff (FA, lipid sol toxins, vit, hormones)

8

Mitochondria

fx: site of ATP sythesis

9

Ribosomes

1/2 protein and 1/2 ribosomal RNA (one large subunit and one small subunit)
fx: site of pro synthesis

10

protein synthesis lite

1. mRNA is sythesised from DNA
2. mRNA goes to cytoplasm
3. Ribosomal subunits clamp onto mRNA
4. 1st tRNA binds to codon 1
5. 2nd t RNA binds to codon 2
6. the 2nd aa dehydrate toether
7. ribosome shifts by 1 codon
8. tRNA 1 falls off
9. tRNA 3 move in and repeat form step 6

11

2 places you will find ribosomes

1. protein made in polysomes stay inside the cell
2. proteins made on Rough ER go some place

12

polysomes

proteins are used in that cell unmodified

13

Rough ER

network of membrane tubes with in cytoplasm with ribosomes attached

14

smooth ER

network of membrane tubes inside cytoplasm
fx: ca+ storage, detox certain drugs (lipid sol), lipid sythesis
(ca+ is highly reactive in cytoplasm- when let out of smooth ER muscle contracts and when back in smooth ER muscle relaxes

15

Gogi apparatus

fx: package protein

16

Nuclear Envelope

fx: holds DNA

17

Nucleolus

Regoin of DNA that codes for ribisomal subunits

18

DNA x 3

1. chromatin= working form of DNA. DNA wrapped loosely around HISTONE proteins. Any DNA wrapped turned off= "heterochromatin". Any DNA unwrapped is potentially turns on = "euchromatin"
2. sister chromatids
3. moment in anaphase when chromatids are being pulled apart