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Flashcards in Ch 3 Practice Test Deck (26):
0

The first two weeks of prenatal development, the period of the ______, is a time of rapid cell division. The period of the _______ lasts from 9 weeks after conception afterbirth.

Zygote; fetus

1

Developmental psychologists tend to focus on three major issues. Which of the following is not one of those issues?
- nature and nurture
- reflexes and unlearned behaviors
-stability and change
-continuity and stages

Reflexes and unlearned behaviors

2

Teratogens are agents that pass through the placentas screen and may harm an embryo or fetus. What is known as a teratogen ?

Alcohol

3

From the very first weeks of life, some infants are intense and anxious, while others are easygoing and relaxed. These differences are usually explained as differences in

Temperament

4

In seeking to understand genetic influences on personalities, adoption studies

Evaluate whether adopted children's traits more closely resemble those of their adoptive parents or those of their biological parents

5

The orderly biological growth process called maturation explains why

Most children begin walking by about 12 to 15 months

6

Researchers raised some rats in an enriched environment and others in a deprived environment with no objects or activities to stimulate them. At the end of the experiment,

The brains of the rats living in the enriched environment developed a heavier, denser cortex

7

As an infants muscle and nervous system mature, more complicated skills emerge. What is true about motor-skill development?

The sequence is universal

8

During Piaget's pre operational stage (2-6 years), the young child's thinking is

Egocentric

9

The principle of conservation explains why a pint of milk remains a pint, whether we pour it into a tall, thin pitcher or a short, wide one. Children gain the mental ability to understand conservation during the

Concrete operational stage

10

Piaget's theory of cognitive development has enriched our understanding on how children's think. However, many researchers believed that

Development is more continuous than Piaget realized

11

After about 8 months of age, infants show distress when faced with a new baby sitter. Their response is an example of

Stranger anxiety

12

In series of experiments, the Harlows found that monkeys raised with artificial mothers tended, when afraid, to cling to

The cloth mother who offered comfortable contact

13

Parents who use ____ parenting style tend to have children with high self-esteem, self reliance, and social competence

Authoritative

14

Adolescence is marked by the onset of

Puberty

15

Puberty is the time of maturing sexually. Girls begin puberty at about the age of -----, boys at about the age of -----

11,13

16

According to Piaget, the ability to think abstractly indicates

Formal operational thought

17

According to Kohlberg, pre conventional morality focuses on _______, conventional morality is more concerned with

Self interest; upholding laws and social rules

18

Erikson contended that each stage of life has its own special psychosocial task or challenge. The primary task during adolescence is to

Search for an identity

19

Studies comparing personalities of their parents and their adopted children show that children's personalities differences are mainly due to

Heredity

20

Some western development psychologists refer to the time period when a person has not yet reached the full independence of adulthood as

Emerging adulthood

21

Our physical abilities tend to peak by our

Mid-twenties

22

By age 65, a person would be most likely to experience decline in the ability to

Recall and name all the items on a grocery list

23

Freud defined the healthy adult as one who is able to love and work. Erikson agreed, observing that the adult struggles to attain intimacy and

Generativity

24

Most older adults report

Satisfaction levels comparable to those of younger people

25

Which statement is true about stability and change throughout the life span?

Our temperament tends to be very stable throughout our lives