Ch. 3 The Brain Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 The Brain Deck (62):
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Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

Nerve cells that send messages to the central nervous system and other parts of the body

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Cell body

Produces energy that fuels neurons activities

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Dendrites

Receives information from other neurons and passes the message through the cell body

4

Axon

Takes messages away from the cell body

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Myelin

Fatty substance that insulates and protects the axon and helps speed up the transition of messages

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Axon terminals

Small fibers at the end of the axon; passes the message on to the dendrites

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Synapse

Junction between the axon terminals of one neutron and dendrites of another

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Motor neurons

Nerve cells that carry info. received from central nervous system to muscles and glands

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Sensory neurons

Nerve cells that carry info. received by senses to the central nervous system

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Neurotransmitter

Chemicals that are stored in axon terminals, released to help send messages

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Acetylcholine

Involves in control of muscles, learning and memory

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Dopamine

Involves motor behavior, deficiency plays a role in Parkinson's disease

13

Noradrenaline

Preparing the body for action(bracing yourself)

14

Serotonin

Involved in emotional arousel and sleep

15

Spinal cord

Carries messages from the brain to a specific muscle.

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Spinal reflex

Automatic response to a trigger without input from the brain

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Peripheral nervous system

Is responsible for sending messages between CNS and the body

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Somatic nerve system

Transmits sensory messages to CNS

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Autonomic nervous system

Regulates the bodies vital functions; things we don't have to think about

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Sympathetic

Response to stress, fight or flight

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Parasympathetic

Calms body down, rest and digest

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Hindbrain

In control of vital functions; medulla, pons, cerebellum

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Midbrain

Controls vision and hearing; controls attention, sleep, arousel

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Forebrain

Controls complex functions, thoughts and emotions; thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system, cerebrum, cerebral cortex

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Medulla

Vital functions; heart rate, blood pressure and breathing

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Pons

Regulates body movement, attention, sleep and alertness

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Cerebellum

Balance and coordination

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Reticular activating system

Attention sleep and coordination

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Thalamus

Serves as a relay station for sensory stimulation

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Hypothalamus

Vital to regulation of body tempuratures, nutrient storage, and motivation/ emotion

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Limbic system

Forms a boarder around the brain stem; controls behavior in survival situations

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Cerebrum

Site of most conscious and intellectual activity, makes up 70% of the brains weight

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Cerebral cortex

Liters layer of the brain, what makes us uniquely human

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Cerebral cortex

Made up of 2 hemispheres, corpus callosum, info transmits from one side on the brain to the other, divided into 4 lobes

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Corpus collosum

Structure that connects the 2 hemispheres

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Occipital lobe

Vision

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Temporal lobe

Hearing

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Parietal lobe

Skins sensory info

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Frontal lobe

Behind the forehead, emotions and judgement

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Association areas

Solves problems, makes plans and decisions, provides the core of working memory

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Language abilities

Left hemisphere

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Wernicke's area

Pieces together sights and sounds; damages: can't understand speech, speech is meaningless

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Broca's area

Controls the area of the face used for speaking; damages: people speak slowly

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Left Hemisphere

Language, Logic, Problem Solving, Mathmatical

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Right Brain

Imagination, Artistic sense, Feelings, Spatial Relations

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Accidents

Location of the injury is more important then the extent

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Lesions

Cutting or removing or destroying a part of the brain

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Electrical stimulation

Used in humans to relieve pain and/or control violent behavior

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Records electrical activity in the brain

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Cat scans

3-dimensional view of brain

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MRI

Magnetic wave gives visual image of the brains anatomy, organs, soft tissue and bones

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PET scan

Person injected with radioactive sugar(ink) to show active locations in the brain

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Functional MRI

Which brain is active during which activity

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Three Endocrine Glands

Consists of glands that secrete substances into the bloodstream

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Hormones

Substances that are secreted and control growth and affect behavior and emotional responses

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The Pituitary Gland

The "Master" Gland, stimulated by the hypothalamus, may affect the adrenals, thyroid and ovaries or testies, regulates growth or muscles, bones and glands

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The Thyroid Gland

Produces thyroxin and affects metabolism

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The Adrenal Gland

Secretes cortical steroids, increase resistance to stress and promotes muscle growth, produces adrenaline and noradrenaline to prepare the body for fight or flight

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Anabolic Steroids

Synthetic steroids used to enhance performance or body appearance

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Nature

What people inherit; genetics

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Nurture

Environmental factors; what people are exposed to in life