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Flashcards in ch 30 Deck (20):
1

Land Plants

-supergroup: archaeplastids
-related to algae that moved onto dry land
-nearest relatives are charophytes

2

adaptations to land

1. development of embryo protection
2. development of vascular tissue (to get taller)
3. development of megaphylls (large leaves w branching veins)
4.development of seeds
5. development of flowers

3

wat you need to know

mosses, lycophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms

4

Alternation of generations

-two multicellular individuals alternate, each producing the other

-sporophyte: 2nd/diploid, produces spores by meiosis, haploid reproductive structure

-Gametophyte: n/haploid, produces gametes by mitosis, sperm and egg fuse-->diploid zygote

5

Nonvascular Plants

Mosses!!
-no vascular tissue or seeds
-live in moist areas
-Gametophyte generation dominant
-flagellated sperm swim to egg
-sporophyte relies totally on parent plant
-characterized as a bryophyte

-spores released from capsules grow into new gametophyte

6

Vascular Plants


have:
-roots: absorb water from soil
-stems: conducts water to leaves
leaves: allow exchange of gasses, photosynthesis, also regulate water evaporation

7

seedless vascular plants

-ferns and lycophytes
-sporophyte generation is dominant
-produce windblown spores

8

Lycophytes

-also called club mosses
-upright stems
-small leaves called MICROPHYLLS with single vein
-sporangia re borne on terminal clusters of leaves
-seedless; have spores
-vascular
-well developed roots, stems and leaves

9

Ferns

-Fronds: leaves, MEGAPHYLLS
Rhizome: horizontal stem
-SPORES found at the bottom of each fond
-no seeds
-seedless, vascular

10

Fern Life Cycle

1. mature gametophytes
2. fertilization
3. the zygote and developing sporophyte are chilled
4. spopophye
5. the spores
6. spore dispersal
7. immature gameophyte

11

Seed plants: gymnosperns and angiosperms

-most plentiful plant
-seed coat has embryo and stores food (dormancy)
-Pollination: pollen carried to the female part of the plant continuing ovules
-ovule-the egg and surrounding supportive tissues
-Fertilization: pollen grows a pollen tube to egg and deposits sperm cells
-ovule matures into seeds

12

gymnosperns

-most are cone-bearing
-dont make fruit
-ovules located on the surface of their cone scales (later become seeds)
-"Naked seeds"-no enclosing tissue around seeds
-include conifers (pine, cedar, etc) and Ginkgoes

13

Angiosperm

-Means "vessel"-->seeds develop from an ovule within an ovary (the vessel), ovary becomes the fruit

-produce covered seeds (Not NAKED)

-flowers and fruits-->flowers for pollination
-animal pollination: showy petals and strong fragrance
-wind pollination: grasees, oaks, maples

-fruit is for seed dispersal

14

Flower Structure

-receptacle: tip of stalk that bears flowers
-sepals (calyx): modified leaves that protect bud
-petals (colorful): modified leaves may be colorful (diverse in size, shape, and color, attracts a particular pollinator)

15

Stames

-male reproductive structure

-anther: pollen production
-filament: stalk

16

Carpel (pistil)

-female reproductive structure

-stigma: for reception of pollen
-style: elevates the stigma
-ovary: ovules production and containment, becomes fruit

17

Carboniferous period

-time of the "coal forest"
-seedless vascular plants dominated vast swampy "coal forests"
-Carboniferous period (360-299 million years ago)
-when these plants died, they formed peat deposits that eventually formed coal

18

conifers (seed vascular plant)

-adapted to cold, dry weather
-needle like leaves conserve water with thick cuticle
-pollen cones and seed cones
-wood for construction and paper
-resin for rosin and turpentine

19

Gingkoes (seed vascular plant)

-only one species survives-->gingko bloba
-female trees produce bad smelling seeds
-male trees are preferred for ornamental planting
-gingkoes are resistance to pollution and disease

20

fruit is for seed dispersal

-dry fruit often in pods can break open to scatter seeds, have windblown fruit, or attach to animals

-fleshy fruits change color when ripe as a signal