CH 30: Angiosperms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 30: Angiosperms Deck (40)
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1

What are the defining features of Angiosperms?

-Flowers and Fruits
-Enclosed seeds
-Seeds within fruits
-Seed endosperm

2

What was Darwin's "Abominable Mystery?"

Origin of Flowering Plants
-how did they get so diverse so quick?

3

Why were Angiosperms so successful?

1. Complex vascular tissues; wide vessels for efficient transport to grow big
2. Broad leaves for photosynthesis; thick cuticle prevent water loss; abscission leaves fall off
3. Fast life cycle (die off in winter and come back through seeds)
4. Fruit protects seeds; dispersal
5. Coevolution led to efficient reproduction

4

What are the key characteristics of Angiosperms?

1. Efficient vessels move water quickly
2. Flowers for sexual reproduction
3. Stigmatic germination and double fertilization
4. 3n Endosperm - provide nutrition for seeds
5. Fruit: protect & disperse seeds

5

What is the reproductive structure of the angiosperm and what are the organs?

Flowers are the reproductive structure of Angiosperms
Four organs:
1) Sepals: green outer layer of flower (protection)
2) Petals: often colorful (attraction)
3) Stamens: produce pollen
4) Carpels (pistil): produce ovules

6

What are the compenents of the Carpel and Stamen?

Carpel (pistil) (female flower parts)
1) Stigma
2) Style
3) Ovary

Stamen (male flower parts)
1) Anther
2) Filament

7

What occurs in the ovary?

1) Ovules inside of ovary develop into embryos
2) The embryos develop into seeds

Ovary protects the ovules

8

What is the anatomy of the pistil (carpel)?

1) Stigma: receives/recognizes pollen
2) Style: long portion between stigma & ovary
3) Ovary: enclose/protects ovules (develop into fruit)

9

What is the anatomy of the stamen?

1) Anther: sac-like structures where pollen is produced
2) Filament: slender stalk to support anther

10

What are the types of angiosperm flowers?

1) Complete Flowers
2) Incomplete Flowers
3) Perfect Flowers
4) Imperfect Flowers

11

What are Complete Flowers?

-Contain all 4 flower organs (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil)

12

What are Incomplete Flowers?

-Flowers that lack one or more organ

13

What are Perfect Flowers?

-Contain both male/female reproductive structures

14

What are Imperfect Flowers?

-Flowers that lack one or more reproductive organs

15

If you're a perfect flower are you a complete flower? Is an imperfect flower an incomplete flower?

Perfect flower not automatically complete flower

Complete flower automatically perfect flower

Imperfect flower automatically incomplete flower

Incomplete flower not automatically imperfect flower

16

What is angiosperm double fertilization?

One sperm fertilizes an egg (2n)

One sperm fertilizes with 2 gametophyte nuclei to form endosperm (3n)

17

What are the major clades of angiosperms?

Monocots
-one cotyledon (seed leaf)

Eudicots
-two or more cotyledon

18

What are the features of Monocots?

Root
-root xylem and phloem in a ring

Stem
-vascular bundles scattered in stem

Leaf
-leaf veins form a parallel pattern

Flower
-flower parts in threes and multiples of three

19

What are the features of Eudicots?

Root
-root phloem between arms of xylem

Stem
-vascular bundles in a distinct ring

Leaf
-leaf veins for a net pattern

Flower
-flower parts in fours or fives and their multiples

20

What is coevolution and how does it explain angiosperm diversification?

-When two or more species of organisms (flowers/pollinators) influence eachother's evolutionary pathway
-Explains diverse forms of flowers/fruits to accomplish pollen/seed dispersal

21

How did pollination coevolve?

-Foster genetic variability
-attact pollinators using color, odor, shape, size

22

What are pollination syndromes?

Flower traits that have coevolved in response to natural selection with pollinators
-Bees, Butterflies, Moths, Birds, Bats

23

What are the pollination syndromes for bees?

-Flolowers are all colors but red
-Flowers are fragrant
-Flowers have lot of nectar/pollen

24

What are the pollination syndromes for butterflies?

-Flowers are all colors
-Flowers have light scent
-Flower has landing pad
-Tubular tongue so nectar in deep tube
-Nectar guide patterns

25

What are the pollination syndromes for moths?

-Flowers are white/bright/open at night
-Flowers have musky odors
-Feed with long thin tongue so nectar in deep tube

26

What are the pollination syndromes for birds?

-Color visionso flowers often red
-Require perch so flower is strong
-Flower has no smell
-Flower has alot of nectar
-Hummingbirds hover so their flowers dangle
-Flowers have pro-bird/anti-insect adaptations

27

What are the pollination syndromes for bats?

-Color blind so flowers have light reflective colors
-Flower has strong odor
-Active at night so flower opens at night
-High food requirement so flower has alot of nectar
-Navigate by echolocation so flower on tree trunks
-Bats travel further so pollen spread farther apart

28

What are the abiotic pollination syndromes?

Wind
-reduced flowers, no petals to get in way of wind

Water
-rare

29

What is the job of fruit and how did they adapt?

Job is to protect seeds and aid in dispersal

Adapted to:
1) Attract animals to eat it
2) For wind dispersal
3) Attach to animal fur
4) Float in water

30

What are secondary metabolites and how are they related to pollination?

Synthesis of molecules that are not essential for cell structure/growth
-encourage polinators to visit flower