Ch 31 and 32 Non-infectious upper and lower respiratory problems Flashcards Preview

Nursing 281 > Ch 31 and 32 Non-infectious upper and lower respiratory problems > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 31 and 32 Non-infectious upper and lower respiratory problems Deck (23):
1

Surgical management of sleep apnea

adenoidectomy
uvulectomy
remodeling of the entire posterior oropharynx Tracheostomy

2

Supraglottic method of swallowing

Sit or stand upright, clear throat, take a deep breath, place ½ -1 teaspoon of food in mouth, hold breath or bear down and swallow twice

3

Asthma

Effects only airways, not alveoli
Inflammation causes obstruction

4

Forced vital capacity test (FVC)

volume of air exhaled from full inhalation and full exhalation

5

Forced expiratory volume in the first second test (FEV1)

volume of air blown out as hard and fast as possible during the first second of the most forceful exhalation and the greatest full inhalation

6

Peak expiratory flow test (PEF)

fastest airflow rate reached at any time during exhalation

7

Medications asthmatics should avoid

aspirin, Nsaids, or beta blockers

8

Complications of status asthmaticus

pneumothorax
cardiac or respiratory arrest
possible need for intubation

9

COPD

Comprised of emphysema or chronic bronchitis
Patients have chronic respiratory acidosis

10

Emphysema

Loss of lung elasticity
Air is trapped in alveoli

11

Chronic bronchitis

Inflammation of bronchi
Only effects airway and not alveoli
Bronchiole walls thicken and thick mucus is produced

12

Complications of COPD

hypoxemia, acidosis, respiratory infection, cardiac failure, and dysrhythmias

13

Cause of hypoxemia and acidosis in COPD

decreased ability to exchange gas

14

Cause of respiratory infection in COPD

Increased mucous and poor oxygenation

15

Cause of dysrhythmias in COPD

caused by hypoxemia or acidosis

16

Weight changes in COPD

WT loss due to increased metabolic needs and decreased intake

17

Types of drug therapy for COPD

same drugs as for asthma plus mucolytics to thin secretions

18

Diaphragmatic/abdominal breathing

•Lie on back with knees bent
•Place hands or a book on abdomen to create resistance
•Begin breathing from your abdomen while keeping your chest still. You can tell if you are breathing correctly if your hand rises and falls

19

Pursed lip breathing

•Close mouth and breathe in through nose
•Purse lips as if to whistle and breath out slowly through mouth without puffing cheeks- spend at least 2x as long exhaling than inhaling
•Use abdominal muscles to squeeze out every bit of air you can
•Remember to use pursed lip breathing during any physical activity

20

Most common complication of COPD

Pneumonia

21

Primary pulmonary HTN

blood vessel constriction w/ vascular resistance in the lung
Leads to poor perfusion and hypoxia
deadly without tx

22

Primary pulmonary HTN manifestations

dyspnea
fatigue
chest pain

23

Tx for primary pulmonary HTN

drugs to vasodilate pulmonary vessels like CCB’s, Coumadin, and micro-infusion pumps for long term vessel dilation drugs