Ch. 33 - Antivirals, Antimalarials, Anthelmintics Flashcards Preview

Pharm > Ch. 33 - Antivirals, Antimalarials, Anthelmintics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 33 - Antivirals, Antimalarials, Anthelmintics Deck (30):
1

Viruses:

-More difficult to tx

-Reproduce by using host cell components

2

Viral Infections:

Acute = (flu/cold)

Chronic = (herpes/HIV/MS/Alzeihemers)

3

Influenza (1)

Highly contagious -->
-Affects: Resp system

Transmitted = contaminated droplets

3 main types of influenza = A,B,C

4

Influenza (2)

Flu vaccine:
-Develop high antibody titer levels

5

Herpesviruses :

HSV – 1 (COLD SORE)
HSV – 2 (genital herpes)
HSV – 3 (chicken pox/shingles)
HSV – 4 (Epstein-Barr)

Cytomegalovirus – affects salivary glands (preg woman stay away)

6

Viral Infections:

1.) Hepatitis B (HBV)
2.) Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Vaccines

7

Antiviral Drugs (non-HIV):

-Prevent or delay spread of viral infection

-Inhibit viral replication

8

amantadine (Symmetrel):

Tx: Parkinsonism:
-Influenza A


Po = prophylactic use

9

acyclovir (Zovirax) (1):

1.) Effective antiviral agent against:
-Herpes simplex (2)
-Herpes zoster (3)
-Herpes encephalitis (3)

10

acyclovir (Zovirax) (2):

2.) Po, IV, topical
3.) Short half-life (admin more freq)
4.) Interferes w/ viral synthesis of DNA

5.) Decrease healing time of active lesions

11

acyclovir (Zovirax) (3):

Side Effects:
-GI distress
-HA, dizziness
-Rash, urticaria

12

acyclovir (Zovirax):

Adverse Reactions:
-Gingival hyperplasia (overgrowth of gums)
-Nephrotoxicity

13

Teach: acyclovir

1.) Maintain adequate fluid intake

2.) Encourage good oral hygiene

3.) Report adverse reactions

14

Neuraminidase inhibitors:

Decrease release of virus from infected cells =  -Decrease spread of virus
-Decrease duration of flu symp

15

zanamivir (Relenza) / oseltamivir (Tamiflu):

1.) Take within 48 hr of flu symptoms

2.) Type A & B flu viruses

3.) Not the same as a ‘flu shot’

16

Malaria (1):

1.) Protozoal organism
2.) Transmission
*Carried by mosquitoes
*Person – to – person contact

17

Malaria (2):

3.) Transmission:
*Ingest contaminated food or water
*Contaminated syringe/needle
*Direct contact w/ parasite

18

Malaria (3):

4.) Parasites multiply in liver = infect red blood cells

5.) Life-threatening = disrupting blood supply to vital organs

19

Chloroquine HCl (tx: malaria):

-Po, IM
-Preventative measures:
*Before the trip
*While in the area
*After return from the area

20

Chloroquine HCl - Side Effects / Adverse Reactions:

1.) GI upset
2.) Blurred vision
3.) Hypotension
4.) Ototoxicity (hearing prob/loss)

21

Chloroquine HCl - Nursing Interventions:

Monitor:
-Renal (kidney) & liver function

22

Teach: chloroquine HCl

1.) Take po drug w/ food if GI upset occurs

2.) Report vision changes immediately

3.) Avoid consuming large amts alcohol

23

Anthelmintics (Antihelminthics):

Helminths:
-Parasitic worms
-Most common form of parasitic disease

Most common site:
-Intestine

24

Transmission:

-Direct skin contact
-Ingesting food & water infested w/ worms

25

Anthelmintics (Antihelminthics) cont...

Action:
-Root out parasitic worms from the body:
*Killing
*Stunning

26

Side Effects - Adverse Reactions:

1.) GI distress
-Anorexia, n/v

2.) Neurologic SE
-Dizziness, weakness, HA, drowsiness

27

Nursing Interventions: antihelminthics

1.) Collect stools in a clean container

2.) Adm meds with or immediately after meals

28

Teaching (1): antihelminthics

1.) Handwashing!

2.) Daily showers = not baths

3.) Change sheets, bedclothes, towels & underwear daily

29

Teaching (2): antihelminthics

4.) Don’t walk barefoot in infested area

5.) Wash vegetables & fruits before eating or cooking

6.) Proper cooking of beef & pork

30

Teaching (3): antihelminthics

7.) Drowsiness may occur

8.) Compliance:
-Drug tx, follow up

9.) Report SE/adverse reactions to health care provider